Windows 2000 Information and Links

128bit = The Windows 2000 High Encryption Pack allows you to enhance your system with the highest available encryption level (128-bit). This is now included with >= SP2 by default.
ACLDiag = ACLDiag is a support tool to help diagnose and troubleshoot problems with permissions on Active Directory objects. It reads security attributes from access control lists (ACLs) and writes information in either readable or tab-delimited format. This can be uploaded into a text file for searches on particular permissions, users, or groups. The tool also provides some simple cleanup functionality.
ACPI = ACPI defines a hardware interface for the motherboard, supporting power management through improved hardware and operating system coordination. Enable the BIOS options prior to installation so that ACPI will be detected, it is not recommended to change machine types after installation.

Also see HALTroubleShoot
ActiveDirectory = Windows 2000 directory services overview.

Also see ADClient  ADMT  ADSI  ADSIEdit  ADSizer
ActiveX = ActiveX is a loosely defined set of technologies to provide integration of controls into Web browsers.

Also see IEDisableActiveX
Ad-Aware = Version 6 of the multi spyware removal utility still has free version for personal use. Make sure to download the latest signature file as well as the program itself.

Also see WinSockFix
Adaptec = Adaptec compatibility matrix for Windows2000.
ADClient = Microsoft has developed extensions for Windows 9X and Windows NT4 that allow those client platforms to take advantage of features provided by the Windows 2000 Active Directory service. These client extensions were developed for customers who wish to deploy Windows 2000 Server in environments with Windows 9X and Windows NT4 based client workstations.
AdDiag = AdDiag is a command-line resource kit tool which provides information on current state of software either installed or available for installation on a computer managed by IntelliMirror Software Installation and Maintenance.
AddRemove = You can control the list of Windows components that will appear under 'Add/Remove Programs'. Add or remove the word hide between the commas in the component entries of C:\WINNT\inf\sysoc.inf. For the old base components, you must remove hide from the AccessUtil line before the other entries will be recognized.

Also see UninstallKey
AddUsers = AddUsers uses a comma-delimited file to create, write, and delete user accounts. You can also export user information to a file that can be used as input on another PC.

Also see ResKit  UserManagement
AddUsersPro = In Windows 2000 Pro (not Server), an ordinary user can add a new user, and change the password on users that they create. They can NOT add a user to the Administrators group and can NOT change existing user's passwords. This ability can be disabled by removing NT AUTHORITY\INTERACTIVE from the local Users Group.

Also see
AdministratorAlerts = In Windows NT4 you could use the Server Manager to configure Administrator Alerts. In Windows 2000 use regedt32 (Reg_Multi_SZ entry, regedit won't work) to edit AlertNames under HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Alerter\Parameters. Add the computers and users to receive administrative alerts, one per line.
Adminpak = Run Adminpak.msi from the i386 folder to install the Server Administration Tools in Windows 2000. If you install them after the service pack is applied then run the updated Adminpak.msi file instead.
ADMT = The Active Directory Migration Tool (ADMT) is a migration utility to help upgrade Windows NT to the Windows 2000 Server Active Directory service.
ADSI = Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI) enable systems administrators and developers of scripts or C/C++ applications to easily query for and manipulate directory service objects.
ADSIEdit = ADSI Edit is an MMC snap-in support tool that acts as a low-level editor for Active Directory. Using ADSI, it provides a means to add, delete, and move objects within the directory services. The attributes of each object can be viewed, changed, and deleted.
ADSizer = The ADSizer resource kit tool lets you estimate the hardware required for deploying Active Directory based on your organization's profile, domain information, and site topology.
Advisories = Read about security problems, threat assessments, vulnerabilities, warnings...

Also see Security  VirusInfo
Analyzer = The Windows 2000 Readiness Analyzer checks your system and reports potentially incompatible hardware devices and software applications against known issues. From an existing OS, you can download chkupgrd.exe and run the tool or run winnt32.exe /checkupgradeonly from the Windows 2000 CD. Note: This can't be run on a PC already dual booting with Windows 2000.

Also see Install  Upgrade
AntiVirus = Most of the major AntiVirus software manufacturer's now have versions that support Windows 2000. - FreeWare for home use

Also see TheCleaner  VirusInfo
ApCompat = Windows 2000 provides a utility called apcompat.exe (similar to Imagecfg.exe in NT4) in the \support directory of the CD that can fool a program into thinking it is running on NT4 (service pack 3, 4 or 5) or Windows 9x.

Also see CompatibilityUpdate  SupportTools
APIMon = The Application Monitor (APIMon) resource kit tool monitors page faults caused by an application and reports them by using Win32 function calls.
APM = When ACPI support is not installed, Windows 2000 Professional may install APM. Microsoft states "The APM support in Windows 2000 is intended only to support legacy notebook computers. It is not designed to run on desktop systems..."

Also see APMStat
APMStat = Use the Apmstat.exe support tool to determine the status of Advanced Power Management (APM) issues in Windows 2000.
AppCenter = Application Center Server is part of Microsoft's emerging .NET strategy. It provides scalability and high availability for web applications running on Windows 2000.
ApplicationHeap = When you run a large number of Windows-based programs, "Out Of Memory" error messages may appear when you attempt to start new programs or try to use programs that are already running, even though you still have plenty of physical and pagefile memory available.

Also see UMDHTools
AppSec = The Group Policy can restrict user access to applications by hiding the Start menu and desktop icons. The AppSec resource kit tool increases security by restricting file execution, preventing the user from running an executable file even through the command-line, or from within another application. = is an online library that "makes it possible to surf pages stored in the Internet Archive's web archive." Enter a dead link like into the search engine and it will show you a list of all available archived copies.
ASPI = There is no default ASPI Layer in Windows 2000. To load Adaptec's ASPI version 4.60 (which is very stable), you must have a qualifying product. Versions >= 4.70 can be loaded without restriction.
Associate = Right click (hold down the shift key in 9x or NT to get the open with option) on a file with the desired extension, choose open with, choose program. Select the application (choose other if needed) and check the 'Always use this program to open these files' entry. The native assoc.exe command-line util and associate.exe from the reskit can also be used.
ATAnlyzr = Apple Talk Network Device Analyzer, Atanlyzr.exe, is a resource kit tool that performs an AppleTalk lookup for registered AppleTalk devices on an AppleTalk network. You can perform a lookup of all AppleTalk devices, specific Net, Name, Type, or partial Name, and Types in the selected zone(s).
Auditing = File Auditing is a feature of Windows 2000 / NT Security that allows you to establish which user account was responsible for what activity on your machine or domain.
Authentication = Windows 2000 has replaced the LAN Manager (LM) Authentication used in Windows NT with a more secure Kerberos authentication scheme.

Also see NT4DomainLogon
AutoExNT = Run a batch job without logging on. Remember to set the DependOnService registry entry for the AUTOEXNT service appropriately if you need to make use of network services.

Also see Services
AutoLogon = You can automate logging on by storing your Domain Name, Password and User Name in the registry. TweakUI has a feature that simplifies implementing this and does not store the password in plain text. You can also simply eliminate the password prompt on non-domain member, Windows 2000 Professional PCs.
AutoLogonCount = AutoLogon will log on a defined user account each time the machine starts. If you want this to happen only a limited number of times (unattended installation), set AutoLogonCount (REG_DWORD) under HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon.
AutomaticUpdates = Automatic Updates is a Windows feature that notifies you when critical updates are available for your computer.

Also see CorporateUpdate  HotFixes  WindowsUpdateError
AutoPowerDown = If your PC is not using an ACPI compliant BIOS, you probably won't be able to get it to turn off when you choose Shut Down. If your BIOS is ACPI compliant, enable those options prior to installation so that the ACPI HAL will be installed; changing the HAL after installation is not recommended. APM support in Windows 2000 is designed for legacy laptops only.
NT4 -
Autorun = Change the Autorun value for CDs. Under HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\CDRom set Autorun = 0 to disable, set Autorun = 1 to enable (default setting). TweakUI can also modify Autorun. Note: Keep the shift key held down as you insert a CD to manually bypass Autorun.
BackBitmapShell = To configure a background for Windows Explorer toolbars, create BackBitmapShell (String Value) under HKCU\\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Toolbar and point the value to the location of the bitmap file you want to use.
BackOffice = BackOffice 2000 products are a suite of applications which are optimized for Windows 2000 such as e-mail, inventory management, database management, and more. BackOffice 4.5 is fully supported in Windows 2000, but will require specific service packs.

Also see Exchange  ISA  MSProxy  SQL
BackUp = Managing Windows 2000 Disks, Backup and Recovery.

Also see InUse
Batch = Batch file articles, examples, help...

Also see BatchCPL  BatchInput  RunDll  Scripts
BatchCPL = You can run a Control Panel applet from the command-line by using rundll32 shell32.dll,Control_RunDLL or control.exe followed by the name of the .cpl. If you include the first part of the displayed name followed by a number, you may be able to start the applet with the focus on a specific tab.

Settings tab on Display properties: start control.exe desk.cpl,Display,3
Advanced tab on Internet properties: start rundll32 shell32.dll,Control_RunDLL inetcpl.cpl,Internet,5
BatchInput = A batch file can be made to continue without having to manually input responses by using redirection commands: 1) Create a file, filename.txt, that contains the response(s), end the line in the .bat file with < filename.txt. 2) Begin the line in the .bat file with echo response |

1) Echo Y | Copy File1 File2
2) Format a: < c:\z.dat where z.dat contains Y on one line and Enter on the next.
BeepCodes = Detailed description of BIOS beep codes.
BenchMarks = Bench Mark Resources.
BIOS = BIOS and Motherboard Info: Find the Motherboard's manufacturer from the BIOS string and other BIOS related information.
BlockAdds = You can bypass Web Ad servers by pointing them to to in your hosts file. Banners will appear as blank areas and cookies will not be placed on your PC. Be aware that Windows 2000 does NOT work well with large hosts files. For best results, monitor your cookies for Ad servers to add to the hosts file.
Personal Note: I no longer do this, it's just more trouble than it's worth...
Books = Windows 2000 Books.
Boot.ini = Boot.ini is used by Windows 2000 (Ntldr) to determine the operating system options to use during the startup (boot) process. C:\Boot.ini is a hidden, read-only, system file and is not shown in Explorer unless you have turned off the 'Do not show hidden files and folders' option.

Also see DualBoot
BootableCD = How do I make a bootable CD-ROM?

Also see CDR
BootDevice = One of the most common stop errors in Windows 2000 is 0x0000007B or INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE. This error usually happens when the drive controller's drivers are not loaded. If the problem occurs during setup, use F6 to add the drivers. If you are using a pre-built image, try including generic drivers in the original install. If the drivers for a promise controller are included (actually loaded) in an image, then a promise card can be temporarily used to boot to until the specific drivers for a boot device can be loaded. Once the system is running, you can switch to the desired controller.
BootDisks =

How to create setup boot disks for Windows 2000 -
Downloadable boot disk images (9x and DOS) with CD ROM support -
How to Create a Bootable Disk for an NTFS or FAT Partition -
Run valueadd\3rdparty\ca_antiv\makedisk.bat from your CD to create a bootdisk -
Download Windows XP boot disks from Microsoft -

Also see DOSClient
BootPart = BootPart lets you add partitions in the Windows NT Multiboot menu, including Linux. BootPart creates a 512 bytes file which contains an image of a boot sector file. It can be used to load the boot sector for a partition and then declare the file in C:\Boot.ini. Version 2.50 can also repair the Windows NT boot sector and has LBA support.

Also see BootSect.dos
BootProcess = Windows NT and 2000 Boot Process and Hard Disk Constraints.
BootSect.dos = When you dual boot, Boot.ini transfers control to Bootsect.dos. If C: is NTFS and you want to boot to an OS that can't use NTFS, you can use the debug command to create your own file. This will only work if the other OS is on a primary partition within the first 2GB of drive 0. Note: BootPart can create the bootsect file for you and will allow you to bypass the 2GB limitation.

Also see DualBoot
Browser = Active Directory services in Windows 2000 replace the browser service used in earlier versions of Windows to provide the NetBIOS name resolution. The browser service in Windows 2000 is provided for backwards compatibility.

Also see BrowStat
BrowserFlags = On PCs with Active Desktop loaded, the BrowserFlags registry setting controls if Internet Explorer will open a file within the same browser window or use an application to open a file.

Also see TIF
BrowStat = Use the BrowStat support tool to troubleshoot the Microsoft Computer Browser Service.
CabArc = You can extract the contents of a cab file, delete a file, and then recreate the cab file using cabarc.exe, part of the IEAK. Run cabarc /? to see the syntax. CabExtract is a GUI utility that includes cabarc.exe.
Cabling = A Comprehensive Collection of Cables, Pinouts and Connectors.
CACLS = CACLS is a native Windows NT / 2000 command-line utility that is used to display or modify file or directory access control lists (ACLs).

Also see Permissions
CareerTools = Links to resources for job search engines and strategies, resume tips, interview strategies, salary and compensation, and general articles on career advice.
CConnect = You can limit a user's concurrent connections in Windows 2000 and NT4 by using the resource kit tool CConnect.exe.
CDKey = If you install from a distribution folder, you can prevent the Windows 2000 installation program from prompting for a CD Key by editing the last line of \i386\setupp.ini so that it reads Pid=51873270. In Office2K, add your serial # to setupp.ini.
CDR = CDR Software.

Also see ASPI  BootableCD  CDRFaq  EasyCD
CDRFaq = CD-Recordable FAQ.
Certificates = Certificate Management in Windows 2000.
ChangeDriveLetter = How to Change the System / Boot Drive Letter in Windows 2000.
ChkDsk = Chkdsk, Autochk, and Chkntfs work together to control how and when a file system check is performed on a drive's volume.
Choice = Choice.exe is not included with Windows 2000. It is part of the Windows 2000 resource kit, but is not available publicly for download. The Windows NT 3.1 and 3.5 resource kits are available, and choice.exe from both versions appears to work in Windows NT4, 2000, and XP.
Cipher = Use Cipher.exe to display or alter EFS encryption from the command-line. Microsoft has released a post SP2 version of this tool.
ClassicShell = You can disable the new features of the Windows XP and Windows 2000 shell (Active Desktop, Quick Launch, Web View) by setting ClassicShell (DWORD) to 1 under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer.
CleanMgr = When you run Cleanmgr.exe /dC: /sageset:1 you set the options that you want the cleanup manager to use when you run Cleanmgr.exe /sagerun:1. Items that you choose are tagged with StateFlags000# under HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\VolumeCaches.
ClearPageFile = To enable "Clear virtual memory page file when system shuts down" in Windows 2000, go to Administrative Tools, Local Security Policy, Security Settings, Local Policies, Security Options. You can also set ClearPageFileAtShutdown (DWORD) to 1 under HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management. This method works for NT4 as well.
Cloning = 3rd party hard drive cloning / duplication / imaging utilities. (Powerquest has been purchased by Symantec)

Also see Deploy  SID2 Sysprep
ClusRest = The Cluster Quorum Restore (ClusRest) resource kit tool restores the quorum disk of a cluster, which is not done by a restore process using NtBackup.
Clustering = With clustering, you can create several cluster nodes that appear to users as one server. If one of the nodes in the cluster fails, another node begins to provide service (a process known as failover).
ClustIM = The Cluster Verification, (clustsim.exe), resource kit tool verifies that two-node cluster systems are set up properly.
CmdBuffer = Use Command-Prompt Properties to Increase Screen Buffer. Open a Command Prompt. Right-click anywhere on the title bar, then click Properties. On the Layout tab, under Screen Buffer Size, increase the Height value. Choose 'Modify shortcut that started this window' to make this change permanent for future Command Prompt windows started from the same shortcut. Click OK.
Codec = Codec information and links.
CommandLine = Command Line syntax references, tricks, troubleshooting advice, and bugs.

Also see SupportTools
Compact = Run compact.exe /? from the command-line to see how to display or alter the compression of files on NTFS partitions from the command-line.
Compatibility = Hardware / Software Compatibility Issues.

Also see Drivers
CompatibilityUpdate = Windows 2000 Compatibility Updates. Once installed, you can set a shortcut's properties to run in Compatibility Mode, but apcompat provides more options. This is now included with >= SP2, but has to be enabled -> regsvr32 %systemroot%\apppatch\slayerui.dll
Compmgmt.msc = Compmgmt.msc, the Windows 2000 Management Console, starts and stops services, manages disks, and provides access to other system management tools. It can be started from the shortcut under Administrative Tools or by right clicking on My Computer and choosing Manage (this can be disabled). If you highlight Computer Management and select Action, you can choose Connect to another computer. This allows for remote management in the way that NT4's SrvTools did. Start the shortcut with Run as if you need to log on as another user.
Compress = To compress files and folders in Windows 2000, right click on the file or folder, choose Properties from the menu, click the Advanced Tab and check the box marked 'Compress contents to save disk space'.

Also see Compact
ComputerAccounts = Creating and Managing Computer Accounts.
ConfigSafe = ConfigSafe® from imagine LAN, Inc. is a comprehensive tracking and recovery tool for Windows 95/98/2000/NT PCs. It tracks changes to configuration files, the Registry, directories, and system assets, and enables one-step restoration to a previously working configuration.
ConnectedFiles = When you use any of the following commands: Copy, Cut , Paste, Move, Delete, or Send to on an HTML file with a .htm or .html extension, or a folder, the same action may be applied to a similarly named folder, or HTML file, in the same location.
ControlPanel = Quicker Access to Control Panel and Other Items.
Convert = Use Convert.exe to convert a FAT or FAT32 partition to the NTFS file system (NTFS only: FAT to FAT32 or NTFS back to FAT is not supported). Run convert /? from a command-line to see the syntax. Convert may fail in Windows XP if the drive was not formatted using Windows XP (this may only be true if you only have 64 Megs of RAM).

Also see DefaultPermissions
Cooling = PC Cooling Resources: hard drive fans, heat sinks...
CorporateUpdate = The corporate Windows Update site provided a way for administrators to download a fix or group of fixes in a packaged format that enables easy distribution to the network. This has been replaced with Software Update Services (SUS) and now Windows Update Services..

Also see AutomaticUpdates  HotFixes  WindowsUpdateError
CorruptLnk = When you select programs from the Start menu or shortcuts and 1) nothing happens, 2) the "Open with" dialog box is displayed or 3) a different program runs, the .lnk file association may be corrupt.

Also see ShellOpenFix
CTFMon = Ctfmon.exe is an Office XP file that is responsible for controlling the Alternative User Input technologies. It is loaded at startup under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run. See the URL for details including how to remove Alternative User Input Services.
CtrList = CtrList is a command-line resource kit tool that lists all objects and counters installed in the system for the given language ID.
Cusrmgr = Cusrmgr (Console User Manager) is a Resource Kit command-line tool that can perform many of the options that are available under "net user", "net group", and the Local Users and Groups MMC snap-in. Cusrmgr can also rename users and groups, an option not available with the "net" commands. It can be run from a non-domain controller.

Also see ResKit  UserManagement
CustomAdm = Describes how you can create custom system policy templates (.ADM files) for Microsoft software.

Also see GroupPolicy
Customized = Customized installation tips.
DataRecovery = Data recovery software from Ontrack International.

Also see
DateLoss = After you install Windows 2000 and reboot, you may receive a message stating that the system's date and time are invalid. This behavior can occur if the computer's BIOS is not 100 percent ACPI compliant.

Also see HALTroubleShoot
DCC = Direct Cable Connection enables two computers to be connected via a serial or parallel cable and to share files.
DCDiag = The Domain Controller Diagnostic support tool (DCDiag) analyzes the state of domain controllers in a forest or enterprise and reports any problems. For more information, search for DCDiag under
DCPromo = Run DCPROMO.EXE to promote a stand-alone / member server to a domain controller and vice-versa.

Also see DomainController
DDK = The Windows 2000 Driver Development Kit (DDK) is provided to assist driver developers in developing products that interact with the Windows 2000 operating system.
Debugger = Set the default debugger for Windows 2000 under HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\AeDebug. If you choose to delete parts of the AeDebug key, export and save it first in case you want to use it again.

Also see DDK
DecompileCHM = Decompile HTML Help authoring (.CHM files). Run hh -decompile folder chm, where -decompile is the switch, folder is the name of the destination folder that you want the decompiled files to be copied to, and chm is the name of the compiled help file you want to decompile. If you have problems, unregister hhctrl.ocx (regsvr32 /u %windir%/system32/hhctrl.ocx) and then register it again (regsvr32 %windir%/system32/hhctrl.ocx)
DefaultPermissions = When you install Windows 2000 to an NTFS partition, the set up process applies default security settings to the system files and folders located on the boot partition. If you used the Convert.exe utility to convert the partition to NTFS, default security settings are not applied.

Also see SecurityDefaults
Defrag = Windows 2000 has a built-in defrag utility. There are several 3rd party utilities available with more features. There are also freeware utilities that allow for scheduling the built-in defrag utility (AutoDeFrag) and PageFile / Registry defragmenting (PageDefrag).
DelPart = DelPart is a DOS utility from the Windows NT 3.1 Resource Kit that deletes individual partitions (including extended partitions containing logical NTFS drives). Run it from a boot floppy.

Also see BootDisks  ZapDisk
DelRP = This resource kit tool deletes NTFS junction points. It also deletes other types of reparse points, which are the entities underlying junction points. Delrp.exe is aimed primarily at developers creating reparse points.
DelSrv = Delsrv is a command-line resource kit tool used to unregister a service with the Service Control Manager.
DependOnService = You can configure the start up of a service based on the completion of one or more services.
Depends = The Depends.exe support tool scans any Win32 module and reports all dependent modules. Use it to find the minimum set of files needed to load an application and to find what functions a module uses or exports.
Deploy = Outlines the steps to configure and install a standard desktop image consisting of the Windows 2000 Professional.

Also see Cloning  Install  IntelliMirror  RIS  SID2  SlipStream  SysPrep
DesktopProcess = In Windows NT, the shell creates 1 process with the Taskbar and Desktop as one thread and each instance of explorer as an additional thread. A failure in any thread will affect the entire process. You can create a separate process for the Desktop / Taskbar and 1 for each instance of explorer by setting DesktopProcess (REG_DWORD) to 1 under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer. This tweak should not be used with Active Desktop. In Windows 2000, the SeparateProcess key under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced seems to provide the same function. This can be enabled in Explorer under Tools, Folder Options, View.
DeskTopUpdate = To install the Desktop Update for IE5 in Windows 95 (without having to reinstall IE4) run the following command from the directory that IE5Setup is in:

IE5Setup.exe /c:"ie5wzd /e:IE4Shell_95x86 /I:Y"
Use IE4Shell_NTx86 for NT4. You may need to run IE5Setup.exe /c to extract ie5wzd to the same directory prior to running the entire command.

Also see IEBatch
DevCon = The "DevCon" utility is a command line utility that acts as an alternative to Device Manager. It allows you to enable, disable, restart, update, remove, and query individual devices or groups of devices. DevCon provides information that is relevant to the developer and is not available in Device Manager.
DeviceManager = Device Manager displays only non-Plug and Play devices, drivers, and printers when you click Show hidden devices on the View menu. Devices that are installed but not currently connected are "ghosted", and not displayed. To see "ghosted" devices, open a command prompt (or use a batch file) and run:
set devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices=1
DFS = Distributed File System info from Windows 2000 Server Technical Notes and Step-by-Step Guide. Note: With the current release of DFS, Windows 9x clients can only access non-SMB volumes through a server-based gateway.

Also see FandP  NetwareGateway
DFSUtil = The Distributed file system support tool (DFSUtil.exe) queries and troubleshoots DFS. It can be used to perform maintenance of a DFS root and to clean up metadata left behind by orphaning or abandoning domain-based DFS roots.
DH = DH (Display Heap) is a command-line resource kit tool used to display information about heap usage for user-mode processes or pool usage in kernel-mode memory. It also enables you to lock heaps, tags, stacks, and objects. DH can be set to identify which process to display information for and what information to display, and can output to a text file.
DHCP = Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for Windows 2000 Server.
DHCPExIm = DHCPExIm is a resource kit tool used to export a DHCP database and server configuration from a server running Windows NT Server 4.0 or Windows 2000 Server for import into a destination DHCP server running Windows 2000. You can export your entire DHCP database or you can select specific scopes during the export.
Dictionaries = Online dictionaries for computer related terms.
DirectX = DirectX 7 is installed with Windows 2000. Upgrades are available, but once applied can not be uninstalled.
DirUse = DirUse is a command-line resource kit tool that displays directory size information, including compression information for NTFS volumes. DirUse can determine the actual usage of space for compressed files and directories. You can also set it to specify a maximum folder size to check and, if you choose, alert you to the problem.
DisableSavePassword = You can disable a user's ability to save DUN passwords by setting DisableSavePassword (Reg_DWORD) to 1 under HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\RasMan\Parameters.
DiskAdmin = Disk Administrator (windisk.exe), the program to partition hard drives in Windows NT4, has been replaced with an MMC snap-in, diskmgmt.msc. Go to: Start - Programs - Administrative Tools - Computer Management (or right click on My Computer and choose Manage). Select the Storage branch, then Disk Management.

Also see DiskManagement  NT4in2K
DiskManagement = Windows 2000 Disk Management, Defragmentation, File Systems, and RAID info.

Also see Dynamic
DiskMap = DiskMap is a command-line resource kit tool that produces a detailed report from the registry about disk characteristics and geometry, and reads and displays data about all of the partitions and logical drives defined on the disk. Limitations: No Dynamic Disk Support.
DiskPart = The DiskPart resource kit tool enables storage configuration from a script, remote session, or other command prompt. DiskPart differs from many command-line utilities in that it does not operate in a single line mode. Instead, the utility is first invoked and then commands are read from standard IO. Commands can be directed to any disk, partition, or volume.
Overview: and
Extend a volume: and
Create a mirror:
Create a RAID 5 set:
DiskSpaceThreshold = If you have event log messages that say 'Disk Is At Or Near Capacity', you can modify DiskSpaceThreshold under HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters to alter the percentage of free disk space available before an alert is logged (default is 10%).
DllHelp = This site provides a searchable database of the names, versions, and related information on most files that ship with selected Microsoft products.
DMA = How do I enable bus mastering (DMA) in Windows 2000?
DMAdmin = If Dmadmin is using a high amount of CPU cycles, you most likely have a software mirror (or array) on your system that is being synchronized. Confirm this by looking in the Disk Management snap-in. You can run net stop "Logical Disk Manager Administrative Service" to end Dmadmin, but the mirror will need to be synchronized later.
DMDiag = Disk Manager Diagnostics (DMDiag) is a command-line resource kit tool that outputs system state and configuration information describing disk storage. You may need to use DMDiag if you are attempting to recover a dynamic volume with DskProbe.
DNA = Distributed interNet Applications Architecture (Windows DNA) is Microsoft's application development model to integrate the Internet, client / server, and PC models of computing for distributed computing solutions.
DNS = Windows 2000 DNS info.
DNSCmd = The DNSCmd support tool allows the administrator to view the properties of DNS servers, zones, and resource records. In addition DNSCmd can be used to manually modify these properties, to create and delete zones and resource records, and to force replication events between DNS server physical memory and DNS databases and datafiles.
DomainController = Managing and Configuring Windows 2000 Domain Controllers.

Also see ActiveDirectory DCPromo
DomainRename = DomainRename is a set of tools that provide a secure and supported methodology to rename one or more domains (as well as application directory partitions) in a deployed Active Directory forest. The DNS name and / or the NetBIOS name of a domain can be changed using the domain rename procedure.

Note: Only the 2003 tool is available from Microsoft now.
Also see RenameServer
DOSClient = How to Set Up the Microsoft Network Client Version 3.0 for MS-DOS.

Also see  and for downloadable network boot disks.
DOSFTP = How to FTP from the command-line. 1) Open a command prompt, type -> ftp ip address or ftp and hit enter 2) login = anonymous 3) password = email address 4) use ls to list files, cd to change directories, get to download.
DOSHere = With the command prompt download, you can start a command prompt in the folder of your choice by navigating to a folder in explorer and right clicking.
DOSMemory = Managing memory in DOS / 9X . Include in Config.sys 1) device=c:\windows\himem.sys 2) device=c:\windows\emm386.exe noems i=b000-b7ff 3) dos=high,umb. Load drivers in Config.sys with devicehigh= and in Autoexec.bat with lh=. MSD's ( Memory Map will show free areas to include in line 2. Also check BIOS options.
DOSPrint = If you want to print to a network printer from DOS based programs, use the net use command to map an LPT port to the printer share.
DownLoads = This page contains all critical updates, service packs, and other beneficial binaries for Windows 2000.
DriverCache = The 51 Meg C:\WINNT\Driver Cache\i386\ file contains the drivers for Windows 2000. It is also in the i386 directory of your CD or distribution folder. This file can be moved to a different location by editing DriverCachePath under HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Setup. Do not include i386 in the path. If you have applied a service pack, SP?.cab should be moved as well.

Also see concerning a possible error when applying SP2 if you modify DriverCachePath.
Drivers = Your best bet for driver support is the device's manufacturer.

Also see Compatibility FCC
Drivers.exe = The List Loaded Drivers (Drivers.exe) resource kit tool displays information on installed device drivers, their files, and their code. There are no command-line arguments; simply run drivers | more.
DrMapSrv = DrMapSrv (Drive Share) is a Terminal Services command-line resource kit tool that configures NET SHARE and NET USE client drives for Terminal Services server access. DrMapSrv does not provide any new capability to Terminal Services, but automates a common activity.

Also see Shares
DSACLS = The DSACLS support tool facilitates management of access control lists (ACLs) for directory services. DSACLS enables you to query and manipulate security attributes on Active Directory objects. It is the command-line equivalent of the Security page on various Active Directory snap-in tools.
DSAStat = The DSAStat support tool can be used to compare two directory trees across replicas within the same domain or, in the case of a Global Catalog, across different domains. The tool retrieves capacity statistics such as megabytes per server, objects per server, and megabytes per object class, and performs comparisons of attributes of replicated objects.
DskProbe = DiskProbe (DskProbe.exe) is a sector editor for Windows 2000 used to directly edit, save, and copy data on the physical hard drive that is not accessible in any other way. DskProbe's help states it doesn't support FAT32 or Dynamic Volumes, but see Q245725.

Also see DMDiag  SupportTools
DualBoot = Install different operating systems to separate partitions if possible. Install Windows 2000 last to avoid having to do a repair install.

Also see BootPart  BootSect.dos  DualBootLinux  DualBootME  Install
DualBootLinux = Information about how to add Linux to Windows 2000's boot loader.

Also see BootPart  RemoveLinux
DualBootME = According to you will not be able to install Windows2000 on a partition that was formatted with the Windows Millennium startup disk.
DualCPUS = How to Add Support for Multiple Processors in Windows 2000.
DumpChk = How to use the Dumpchk.exe support tool to read small memory dump files created by Windows 2000.
DumpEL = Dump Event Log is a command-line resource kit tool that dumps an event log for a local or remote system into a tab-separated text file. This tool can also be used to filter for or filter out certain event types.
DumpFsmos = DumpFsmos is a command-line resource kit tool that dumps the Flexible Single Master Operation (FSMO) roles for a domain, allowing you to find the names of the domain controllers that are performing forest-wide operations master roles.
DuplicateEvents = When the Net Logon service prepares to write an event to the System event log, it first determines if the event is a continuation of a previous event. If the second event is identical to the previous event, and it occurs less than 2 hours after the previous event, it is considered to be a continuation and is NOT recorded.
Dureg = The Registry Size Estimator, (Dureg.exe), resource kit tool shows how much data is stored in the registry, or in any registry subtree, key or subkey. The tool also enables you to search for all occurrences of a text string in the registry. This search can be limited to a specific subtree.
DVDFaq = More than you ever wanted to know about DVD, read the the official Internet DVD FAQ for the Usenet newsgroups.

Also see WMPDVD
Dynamic = Configuring Dynamic Volumes.

Also see DiskManagement
EasyCD = Version 5 of Easy CD Creator is the latest and has known issues with Windows 2000. Check for patches on all versions, especially if you are using IE 5.5. For version 4, upgrade to 4.02 then patch to at least 4.03. Version 3.5c must be patched (floppy107.exe) before you reboot (if cdr4vsd.sys does not get updated, you will not be able to boot up).

Also see RoxioFTP
EditFlags = In Windows Explorer when you click on Tools, Folder Options, File Types then navigate to an extension and click on Advanced, there is an option to Confirm open after download. This controls whether or not you are prompted to "Open this file from its current location" or "Save this file to disk" in Internet Explorer. In the registry, this results in an "EditFlags" entry (0 is Save this file…, 1 is Open this file…) under the application's name in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT.

Also see TIF
EFS = EFS provides a core file encryption technology for NTFS files and folders. EFS addresses security concerns raised by available tools that allow access to files on NTFS volumes without an access check. The encryption technology used is public key-based and runs as an integrated system service, making it easy to manage, difficult to attack and transparent to the user.

Also see Cipher  SysKey
EFSInfo = EFSInfo is a command-line resource kit tool that displays information about EFS encrypted files and folders. It doesn't allow modifications like the native Cipher tool, but it does report more detailed information.
EnableBigLba = If your PC has a 48-bit LBA compatible BIOS, you can set Windows 2000 (with >=SP3 applied) to work with hard drives > 137 GB. Set EnableBigLba registry (DWord) to 1 under HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\atapi\Parameters. Read the warnings before applying.
ERD = To create an ERD: open Backup under Accessories\System Tools and choose Emergency Repair Disk (select the option to also backup the registry to the repair directory).

Also see RDISK  RepairBootSector
ErrorCodes = Windows 2000 Configuration Manager Error Code Meanings and Troubleshooting.
Event ID2009 = On NT4 print servers, users with both networked printers and local HP OfficeJet G or K series printers may open 1000's of named pipes sessions to the server and log event ID 2009s to the System log. Patch the clients with HpGK_NetTrafficFix.exe as needed.

Also see OpenFiles
Events = Windows 2000 Error and Event Messages.
Exchange = Resources to help you deploy, maintain, and support Microsoft Exchange Server. (5.5);EN-US;exch2k (2000)

Also see MailServers
ExCtrLst = The Extensible Performance Counter List (Exctrlst.exe) resource kit tool provides information on the performance counter DLLs that have been installed, listing the services and applications that provide performance information via the Windows 2000 registry.
ExeAsService = SrvAny from the resource kit will allow you to run an application as a service. There are also 3rd party utilities.
Updated NT4 SrvAny -

Also see Services
Expand = Run expand.exe /? from the command-line to see how to extract compressed files from the I386 directory or from a .CAB file. Expand.exe is located in both the I386 and the C:\WINNT\system32 directories.

Example: expand d:\I386\dxdiag.ex_ c:\temp\dxdiag.exe
ExplorerDefaults = You can customize some of Explorer's default behavior by modifying entries under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced. The options include settings that you would manually choose for the Taskbar and Start Menu under Start, Settings, Task Bar & Start Menu, and also for Explorer under Tools, Folder Options, View.
ExplorerSwitches = Explorer shortcut and command-line switches. To have a normal explorer view start at C:\, use %SystemRoot%\explorer.exe /e, c:\
ExtendOemPartition = If you have free space adjacent to the NTFS Boot (Operating System) partition, you can use an in-place upgrade to expand it.
Extract = Extract.exe is a resource kit tool that allows you to extract individual files from compressed cabinet (.cab) files using the command-line.
F5 = How to specify a specific or Third-Party HAL during Windows 2000 setup.
F6 = If you are installing Windows 2000 on a newer SCSI or UDMA controller, hit F6 as soon as setup starts to add the OEM driver. If the OEM driver has the same Name or Plug and Play identifier as a device driver included with Windows 2000, you need to either replace the existing drivers for both the text mode setup and in the completed System32\Drivers folder, or comment the driver out in the Textsetup.sif file.

Also see BootDevice
FandP = File and Print Services Technical Overview.
FAT32 = Windows 2000 supports FAT32 volumes up to 127GB created by Windows 9X. However, Windows 2000 can create FAT32 volumes only up to 32GB.

Also see for FAT32 support in Windows NT4.
Fax = The installation of the Microsoft Fax Service is automatic when you install a Fax-capable modem. Once installed, you can send a Fax as a print option.

Also see for a list of Windows 2000 Fax solutions.
FAZAM2000 = The FAZAM 2000 resource kit tool provides group policy management from a central, easy-to-use console. Two main 'snap-ins' integrate with the MMC, Administrator and Policy Analysis, which manage policies created through Active Directory. The Lite version is part of the Server Resource Kit.
FCC = Don't know the Manufacturer and/or model of a piece of hardware? If sold in the USA, it has to have an FCC (Federal Communications Commission) identifier. Look for something on a sticker on the board that says 'FCC ID'
FDisk = Links to many sites relating to FDisk and other general partitioning utilities.

Also see DiskAdmin  HardDrives9X
FeaturesPro = See what features Windows 2000 Professional has to offer.
FeaturesServer = See what features Windows 2000 Server has to offer.
FileMon = Filemon monitors and displays file system activity on a system in real-time. Filemon's timestamping feature will show when every open, read, write or delete, happens, and its status column tells you the outcome.
FileSynch = Windows (95 and higher) comes with the Briefcase utility for synchronizing files across multiple machines, but there are better products out there.
FileSystems = You can choose between three file systems for disk partitions on a computer running Windows 2000: NTFS, FAT, and FAT32.

Also see FAT32  NTFS
FileVer = The Filever.exe support tool examines the version resource structure of a file or a directory of files on either a local or remote computer and displays information on the versions of executable files such as .exe files and DLLs. FileVer is useful in determining the exact binary build of an installed component.
Find = When you run a command, you can follow it with | find "whatever" /i to limit the output to only what you want to be displayed. Run find /? for details. Examples:

View only established connections: netstat -an | find "established" /i
To see all .doc files on a PC that are in use over a share: net file | find ".doc" /i
To see services containing only Backup Exec: net start | find "Backup Exec" /i
Redirect a list of all .exe files to a file, but do not show the lines containing specified text (note use of multiple find commands):
dir c:\*.exe /a:-d/s |find /i /v "file(s)" |find /i /v "Total Files Listed:" |find /i /v " bytes free">C:\exelist.txt
FindSounds = is a Web search engine for finding sound effects and sample sounds on the Web.
Firewalls = Personal Internet Firewalls.
FireWire = Windows 2000 has built-in support for most FireWire cards. After you install the card, you should see it under the "IEEE 1394 Bus host controllers" section of the Device Manager. - FireNet for TCP/IP emulation over FireWire network
Fixprnsv = Fixprnsv.exe (Windows 2000 Server CD) is a tool for working with printer driver incompatibility issues on Windows 2000 and NT4 print servers. Fixprnsv.exe can list incompatible drivers, as well as perform an on the fly replacement. Fixprnsv.exe will not install drivers for printers that are not already configured on the print server. Note: If you currently share out 9X drivers on an NT4 print queue, Fixprnsv may prevent you from doing this. Test on a single queue before updating all of them.

Also see to install 2000 or XP drivers on a local printer that points to a network queue.
FontSmoothing = You can enable font smoothing by checking the option under Control Panel / Display / Effects, or by setting FontSmoothing (REG_SZ) to 2 under HKCU\Control Panel\Desktop.
ForceVGA = How to force Windows 2000 to use the Standard VGA mode drivers without having to use Safe mode.
FormMail = If you have formmail (.cgi or .pl) on your website, spammers can use a command line syntax to use your website to mass send their Emails. Remove the script if you don't need it or at least make sure it is patched.
FreeSpaceonBoot = If you are running low on free space on your boot volume, you can split your swap file into separate partitions, move the DllCache directory and the file, and move the i386 distribution folder if it exists locally. If you applied a service pack, you can also move the ServicePackFiles directory.

Also see SourcePath and
FRS = The File Replication service (FRS) is a multi-threaded, multi-master replication engine that replaces the LMREPL (LAN Manager Replication) service in Windows NT versions 3.x and 4.0. Windows 2000 domain controllers and servers use FRS to replicate system policies and login scripts for Windows 2000 and down-level clients.
FTPServer = How to set up Windows 2000 as an FTP server.
GetMAC = The GetMAC resource kit tool is used obtain the MAC address and binding order from a computer running Windows 2000 or NT.
GetSID = The GetSID resource kit tool compares the user security IDs (SIDs) of two accounts. You can use it to compare account SIDs between a primary domain controller and backup domain controller when you suspect user database corruption.
GFlags = GFlags is a GUI utility that enables a developer or system administrator to edit the NtGlobalFlag settings for Windows 2000. GFlags can modify the current flags in use by the kernel or the flags used when a particular image file is launched. GFlags can modify the global registry settings that will be used the next time Windows 2000 starts.

Also see SupportTools  UMDHTools
GPoTool = The Group Policy Verification Tool (Gpotool.exe) resource kit tool can: check Group Policy object consistency and replication, display information about a particular Group Policy object, browse Group Policy objects, and choose Preferred domain controllers.
GPResult = GPResult is a command-line resource kit tool that displays information about the result Group Policy has had on the current computer and logged-on user.
GroupPolicy = Windows 2000 Group Policy.

Also see ActiveDirectory  AppSec  FAZAM2000  GPResult  RegEntry  SecurityPolicy
Guid2Obj = GUID to Object (Guid2obj.exe) is a command-line resource kit tool that maps a GUID to a distinguished name. Each security principal (user, group, or computer) is identified by a unique SID in the form of a GUID. In the Active Directory service, each object has a distinguished name. This tool enables you to associate the two.
HAL = HAL is the Hardware Abstraction Layer of Windows 2000 / NT where the assembly language code is isolated. If you clone a system, the HAL on the target images must be the same as the source image. You can switch between uniprocessor and multiprocessor versions of the same HAL.

Also see HALTroubleShoot  Move2000
HALTroubleShoot = In Windows 2000 there are several ways to troubleshoot issues related to the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) that may occur as a result of misdetection, an outdated or non-compliant ACPI BIOS, or an incorrectly or manually installed computer type.

Also see F5  F6
HardDrives = Hard Drive articles, White Papers, and general information -

If your PC is locking up or "stalling" frequently, download the diagnostic package from the hard drive's manufacturer and check your drive.
Fujitsu, IBM / Hitachi, Maxtor / Quantum, Samsung, Seagate / Conner, Western Digital
HardDrives9X = Problems with large hard drives and Windows 9X (95, 98, and Millennium). Note: All of these errors apply to Windows 95, but the real problem is that large drives just aren't supported in 95.

Windows 95 (all versions) does not support hard drives > 32GB -
Windows 98 FDISK does not recognize the full size of drives > 64GB -
Windows 98 Scandisk reports errors on hard drives > 32GB -
Windows 98 and Millennium Format displays the size of partitions or logical drives larger than 64 GB incorrectly -
HardDrivesExternal = A number of companies make external hard drives. ADS technologies makes a drive kit (USB2 or FireWire) that you can attach any IDE hard drive to. A 44 (Laptop) to 40 (Standard IDE) Pin hard drive converter makes a nice compliment to this setup.
HardDriveSize = Hard drive manufacturers use the Decimal system instead of Binary to calculate drive size. They report a GB (gigabyte) as 1,000,000,000 Bytes, but it is actually 2^30 (1,073,741,824) Bytes. 1,000,000,000 / 1,073,741,824 = ~93.132%. Multiply 93% times the reported GB to get the actual capacity.
Hardware = Computer Hardware Web Sites.
Help2K = You can access the complete product documentation for any Windows 2000 platform online or you can download it. When you right click on an open help screen on your PC and go to properties, you can get the address of the page. In Windows XP, you can paste the address (starting with C:) into a window and open that specific help page. This will also work in Windows 2000 if you start the line with hh.
Example in 2K server: hh C:\WINNT\Help\Gstart.chm::/whats_new_in_windows_2000_server.htm
HFNetChk = Hfnetchk.exe, the Microsoft Network Security Hotfix Checker Tool, can be used assess patch status for the Windows NT4 and 2000, as well as HotFixes for Internet Information Server 4 and 5, SQL Server 7 and 2000 (including Microsoft Data Engine [MSDE]), and Internet Explorer 5.01 or later.
HiddenExtensions = There have been a number of recent malicious programs exploiting the default behavior of Windows operating systems to hide file extensions from the user. This behavior can be used to trick users into executing malicious code by making a file appear to be something it is not.
HLScan = HLScan is a command-line resource kit tool that displays hard links (alternate logical names for a physical file) on an NTFS volume or in specified files or directories of the volume. The HLScan display lists all files with more than one name and includes the NTFS file ID, the number of names established for the file, and all file names and paths.
HostHeaders = Information on hosting multiple domain names in IIS with one IP address.
HotFixes = Windows 2000 HotFixes. Search for kbWin2000PreSP5Fix at or try this link.

Also see CorporateUpdate  DownLoads  HFNetChk  QChain
HowTo = Search for kbHOWTOmaster to see a series or articles with various setup instructions.;RID;faqs

Also see WhitePapers
HPFS = HPFS is not supported under Windows 2000, but you can add support for the HPFS file system under NT4. Don't forget to start the pinball device, it will be set to manual by default.
IAS = Windows 2000 Internet Authentication Service (IAS) is the Microsoft implementation of a Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) server.
ICS = Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) resources for Windows 2000.

Also see RRAS
IEAK = Internet Explorer Administration Kit.
IEBatch = Description of how you use batch files and command-line switches to customize Windows Update Setup, as well as command-line parameters for starting Internet Explorer.

Also see DeskTopUpdate  IEAK
IEContentAdvisor = To reset the Content Advisor password, navigate to HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Ratings and delete the value named Key and the sub-key, .default. Close all IE windows and set a new password.
IEDisableActiveX = To disable an ActiveX control, navigate to HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\ActiveX Compatibility\CLSID (CLSID is the class identifier of the appropriate ActiveX control). Set the the kill bit for the appropriate CLSID value by changing the DWORD Compatibility Flags value to 00000400.
IEFavIntelliMenus = To disable the Personalized Favorites Menu feature in Internet Explorer (IE) 5.0 or later, clear the Enable Personalized Favorites Menu check box under the Advanced tab of the Tools menu under Internet Options. You can also set FavIntelliMenus (Reg_SZ) to No under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Main.
IEFixedWindow = An IE shortcut can be set to open at a specific URL with a window at a fixed location and size by preceding the URL (surround with quotes) in the properties with javascript:window.resizeTo(width,height);window.moveTo(x,y);location.href=
The 4 values are in pixels with x,y starting at the bottom left of the screen.

IEFlashAnimation = To disable flash animation, set "Compatibility Flags"=dword:00000400 under HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\ActiveX Compatibility\{D27CDB6E-AE6D-11CF-96B8-444553540000} (you may need to create the key). To re-enable flash, set that value to anything else.
IEFTPClient = If you select the Enable Folder View for FTP sites option (Advanced tab in Internet Options tools menu), Internet Explorer will be a Passive (PASV) mode FTP client. When you clear this option, IE is a Standard mode FTP client.
IEGlobalUserOffline = If Internet Explorer is starting in "Offline Mode", GlobalUserOffline under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings is probably set to 1.
IELimit = How to increase the connection limit in IE.
IEPolicy = What restrictions are available with Internet Explorer 5.01 Service Pack 1 and above?
IEPopUpKiller = There a number of free IE Pop-up window utilities available. The Google Toolbar (requires >= IE 5.5) also provides Pop-up suppression support and is now what I use.
IERepair = Using the Internet Explorer (IE) 5.x repair tool.
IEToolBar = If your tool bars or address bars are no longer available in Internet Explorer and/or Windows Explorer, navigate to HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Toolbar and delete the ITBarLayout entries in the three subkeys. It is always a good idea to backup (export) the parent key key prior to making registry changes.
IfMember = IfMember is a command-line resource kit tool that checks whether the current user is a member of a specified group. It is typically used in Windows logon scripts and other batch files.
IIS5 = To install, go to Add/Remove Programs, Add/Remove Windows Components. For more info, see Internet Information Services 5.0 Technical Overview.

Also see HostHeaders  IISLockTool  IISMigrationWizard
IISLockTool = The IIS Lockdown Tool allows web servers to quickly and easily be put into the right configuration in which the server provides all of the services the administrator wants to provide, and no others. Customers can use this tool to instantly protect their systems against security threats that target web servers.
IISMigrationWizard = The IIS Migration Wizard resource kit tool migrates Web server configuration settings, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) type information, and content to Windows 2000 Server and Internet Information Services (IIS) 5.0 from another Web server. It also provides the option to migrate users and groups.
Indexing = The Indexing Service is available on all versions of Windows 2000 and creates indexes of the contents and properties of documents on your local hard drive as well as shared network drives. This is analogous to Office's Fast Find. This option is generally considered to be worthless and can adversely impact overall system performance.
Infrared = Configuring a PC for Infrared communication.
Install = Installation Basics for Windows 2000.

Also see AddRemove  Analyzer  Customized  Deploy  DualBoot  FileSystems  Move2000  NoUninstall  Uninstall  UpGrade
Instaler = Installation Monitor (instaler.exe) is a command-line resource kit tool that can track changes made by Setup programs.

Also see
IntelliMirror = IntelliMirror is a designation for Windows 2000 Change and Configuration Management features enabling you to manage user data and settings, and to install and maintain software throughout your organization.

Also see Deploy
InternationalSupport = Configuring and Using International Features of Windows

Also see CtrList
InternetResources = Internet resources: General information, Domain registration and lookup, Request for Comments (RFCs)...
Interoperability = Information about using Windows 2000 or NT with UNIX and NetWare.

Also see POSIX
IntFiltr = On a multi-processor Windows 2000 computer, if you properly bind devices to processors, you can improve performance by more effectively using the processor's cache.

Also see ResKit
InUse = Inuse.exe replaces a locked file by using the parameters you specify in the command line to create the following registry value: PendingFileRenameOperations (REG_MULTI_SZ - use RegEdt32) under HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager. When the PC is rebooted, the file is replaced as Windows starts. Except for the POSIX syntax of the value's contents, this is similar to using wininit.ini in Windows 9X.
How to backup files in use -

Also see InUse9X  ResKit
InUse9X = You can automatically replace files in use by Windows 9X with an .inf file that you create or by using wininit. Wininit example: replace msnet32.dll. From your login script, run:
Echo c:\windows\system\msnet32.dll=c:\>>%windir%\wininit.ini
Copy \\sourcepath\ msnet32.dll c:\
The next time the PC is rebooted, c:\ will replace c:\windows\system\msnet32.dll.
IPC$ = When you log into a Windows NT PC from a 9X PC (over a network), you have to first log onto the 9X PC using the Microsoft Networking Client with a username / password that matches an account on the NT PC. If you don't, you will receive this prompt: Enter network password. You must provide a password to make this connection. Resource: \\<computername>\ipc$
IPConfig = In a cmd prompt, type ipconfig /? to see how to get information about your current IP settings. New ipconfig switches in Windows 2000 include: displaydns, flushdns, registerdns, setclassid, and showclassid.

Also see WinIPCfg
IPFowarding = To enable routing / IP forwarding between the two subnets, set IPEnableRouter to 1 under HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters. This is not secure when routing between public networks. Remember to set the default gateways.
IPSec = Windows 2000 automatically creates an IP Security Protocol (IPSec) policy for use with Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)/IPSec connections. This IPSec policy uses local computer certificates for mutual authentication.
IPSecPol = IPSecPol is a command-line resource kit tool that configures Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) policies in the Directory Service, or in a local or remote registry. It does everything that the IPSec Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in does, and is even modeled after the snap-in.
IPV6 = As RFC 2460 describes, IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) is the intended replacement for IPv4. It increases the IP address size from 32 bits to 128 bits, to support more levels of addressing hierarchy, a much greater number of addressable nodes, and simpler auto-configuration of addresses.
IRQSharing = In Windows 2000, PCI devices can share IRQs by design.
ISA = Internet Security and Acceleration Server (ISA Server) is an enterprise firewall and Web cache server. ISA integrates with Windows 2000, especially security, active directory, VPN, and bandwidth control for QoS.
Java = It appears that Microsoft no longer has Java / Virtual Machine available at their website and that Sun's version of Java is now the standard (Note: versions 1.4.2 - 1.4.2_03 are vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS)). If you have the original Windows XP SP1(xpsp1_en_x86.exe, not xpsp1a_en_x86.exe) you can extract and use msjavx86.exe (version 5.0.3805) , but you will need to patch it to version 5.00.3810.
JT = JT.exe allows you to manage the Task Scheduler from the command line.
KB = Microsoft Technical Support Knowledge Base is a free information search system that contains information and solutions to many known problems with Microsoft products.;en-us;kbnumb

Also see MSSearch
KBURL = KBURL is a freeware program that will convert a KB article ID to its' URL and optionally launch it. This URL scheme is now longer correct though. Now, add the article # to the end of Also, if you are located in the United States, you can view an article anytime, by entering the number in Internet Explorer or MSN Explorer Address box like this: mskb article# (example: mskb 123456).
Kerberos = Kerberos is a network authentication protocol that was designed at the MIT in the 1980s to provide proof of identity on a network. The Kerberos protocol uses strong cryptography so that a client can prove its identity to a server (and vice versa) across an insecure network connection.

Also see KerbTray  KList  KSetup  KtPass
KerbTray = The KerbTray resource kit tool displays ticket information for a PC running the Microsoft implementation of Kerberos V5 protocol. KerbTray can also view and purge the ticket cache. You can see the time left on the initial ticket-granting ticket (TGT) before it expires by positioning the cursor over the icon.
Keyboard = Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows.
Kill = Use Kill.exe to end one or more tasks or processes. Processes can be killed by the process ID number (PID), or by any part of the process name or the name of the window in which it is running (usually the title of the application's main window). To find the PID, use TList, another Windows 2000 Support Tool.

Also see PViewer  SupportTools
KiXtart = KiXtart is a freeware logon script processor and enhanced batch scripting language for Windows. Features include: display information, set environment variables, start programs, connect to network drives, and read / edit the registry.

Also see How to get KiXtart to import HKCU settings for Windows 9X clients -
KList = KList is a command-line resource kit tool that lets you view and delete Kerberos tickets granted to the current logon session. To use KList to view tickets, you must run the tool on a computer that runs Windows 2000 and is a member of a Windows 2000 domain.
KSetup = KSetup is a command-line support tool that configures Windows 2000 clients, either Server or Professional, to use an MIT Kerberos server.
KtPass = KtPass is a command-line support tool used to generate Kerberos keytab files, and set password and account name mappings for UNIX services that will use the Windows 2000 Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC).
KVM = Keyboard / video / mouse (KVM) switches share their connected devices between multiple PCs. Some KVMs now support sharing and remote control.
LDAP = Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an established Internet standard that enables cross-network operating system interoperability between directory services that support it. In Windows 2000, LDAP is the primary way the Operating System accesses the Active Directory database.

Also see LDIF  LDP
LDIF = The LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) is an Internet draft standard for a file format that can be used for performing batch operations on directories that conform to the LDAP standards. LDIF can be used to export and import data, allowing batch operations such as Add, Modify, and Delete to be performed in Active Directory.
LDP = LDP.EXE is a graphical support tool that allows users to perform Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) operations, such as connect, bind, search, modify, add, and delete, against any LDAP-compatible directory, such as Active Directory.
LicensePro = Windows 2000 Professional Pricing & Licensing.

Also see LicenseServer
LicenseServer = Windows 2000 Server Pricing & Licensing.

Also see LicensePro
Links = Instant access to thousands of Windows 2000 technical articles, resource links, and support pages.
LinkTracking = When you create a shortcut to a file on a server, it will automatically embed a UNC path. This can be a problem if you later use the same links to resolve to different server. You can disable this behavior by editing the registry. JSIINC's Scut.exe will also work, and supports wildcards.
LinkValueReplication = User groups are managed as a single entity, not by individual users, a concept called "multivalued attributes". This forces administrators to update an entire attribute (list) to add or delete even a single user. If two domain controllers make changes to the same list, one set of changes is lost during replication as part of conflict resolution.
LMHosts = The LMHOSTS file is a static file that assists with remote NetBIOS name resolution on computers that cannot respond to NetBIOS name-query broadcasts. Look at the %systemroot%\system32\drivers\etc\LMHOSTS.SAM sample file for basic syntax.
LockC = In Windows 9X, If you get the error 'Windows Has Disabled Direct Disk Access', you did not type Lock C: before running a utility that writes to the hard drive.
LogonErrors = If you return to the initial logon screen after you type in your password, your boot partition drive letter may no longer match what was originally assigned. You may also receive an error "Your system has no paging file, or the paging file is too small". There are several ways to try to fix this.
LogonScreen = Changing the logon welcome / legal notices and the background bitmap for the Windows 2000 logon screen.
LostPassword = There are a number of utilities / procedures that you can use to try to recover from losing the administrator password. - Pricy, but worth it.
LPTIRQ = If you need to assign an IRQ to your LPT Port, open Device Manager, navigate to ports, right click on LPT1 and choose properties. Go to the Port Settings tab and choose 'Use any interrupt assigned to the port'. Once this is assigned, you should see an IRQ under the resources tab. You can also add PnP support under the same tab.
MACAddresses = GetMac from the resource kit will return the the MAC address from a remote Windows NT / 2000 workstation (ipconfig /all will work locally). To get a list of all MAC addresses on a subnet, you can ping the subnet's broadcast mask and then check your arp cache. This process needs to be run with a batch file to work correctly.
MacDiskonPC = Read Macintosh media on a PC.
Macromedia = Download links for the Shockwave and Macromedia Flash players. Version 5 of the Flash player had vulnerabilities that have been patched.

Also see IEFlashAnimation
MacService = Windows 2000 Macintosh Service Configuration.
MailServers = In addition to Microsoft Exchange, there are a number of POP3 / SMTP Servers for Windows.

Also see Exchange
ManuallyInitiatedCrash = Win2K includes a feature that lets you crash the OS by holding the right Ctrl key and pressing the Scroll Lock key twice.
MAPISend = How can I send a mail message from the command-line? (Link to download MapiSend)
MCSE = MCSE and miscellaneous training info. Personal note: A "Must Consult Someone Experienced" certification is nice to have, but it has gotten so common that it may not give your IT credentials much additional consideration.
MemoryDumps = One of the diagnostic tools available in Windows 2000 is a memory dump. This is an output file generated by the Operating System during a crash and can very useful in determining what caused a crash.

Also see DumpChk
MemSnap = The Memory Snapshot support tool (MEMSNAP.EXE) logs system memory usage to a log file. The following is the command-line syntax for MEMSNAP: memsnap [LogFile]. The log file contains the following information for each active process: Process ID, Process Name, Working Set , Paged Pool, Non-Paged Pool, Pagefile, Commit, Handles, Threads.
MenuOrder = By default, new entries under Start menu items and Favorites appear in the order they were created. To sort the folders alphabetically, right-click one of the folders and select "Sort by Name". To bypass the default behavior and automatically sort by name, delete the MenuOrder key under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\MenuOrder. Note: It appears that new entries will recreate this key and add themselves only to the registry.
MFT = Each file on an NTFS volume is represented by a record in a special file called the master file table (MFT). NTFS reserves space for the MFT in an effort to keep the MFT as contiguous as possible as it grows.

Also see NTFS
Mirror = When you create a mirror set (RAID1), the second drive needs to be unpartitioned (raw).
MMC = Step-by-Step Guide to the Microsoft Management Console.
Modems = Modem FAQs, troubleshooting tips, optimization help. 56k Voice/Data/Fax, ISDN, DSL, Cable Modems, etc...
More = When you use the MORE command, pressing Enter advances the display one line at a time. To advance the display one screen at a time, press the Space bar.
Move2000 = How to Move a Windows 2000 Installation to Different Hardware.

Also see BootDevice  Install
MoveDHCP = How to Move a DHCP Database to Another Windows2000 Server.
MoveTree = The MoveTree command-line utility can now be used to move a subtree of objects (OUs, leaf objects) from one domain within a tree / forest to another domain. Machine objects are then rejoined to the new domain using the NetDom tool.

Also see NetDom  SupportTools
MP3s = MP3 basics: How to record at the best quality, permanently adjust the volume level, remove the ID tags... - Simple instructions for EAC & LAME - Technical instructions for EAC & LAME (also see - Nondestructive volume normalization - Ripping and encoding overview
MP3toWAV = Convert an mp3 file to a wav file using Winamp v2.x. Go to options, preferences. Choose Output under the Plug-ins section. Select Nullsoft Disk Write Plug-In v1.0 (x86) [OUT_DISK.DLL]. Configure the location of the output directory. Close the preferences screen, hit play to begin converting the selected mp3s to wav files.
MRTG = Multi Router Traffic Grapher (MRTG) for NT and UNIX monitors the traffic load on network-links. MRTG generates HTML pages containing GIF images which provide a LIVE visual representation of this traffic.
MSConfig = You can run the Windows XP version of MSConfig in Windows 2000 or NT.

Also see StartupSettings
MSI = Microsoft Installer Package (MSI).

Also see WinInstall
MSICUU = The Windows Installer CleanUp support tool Utility, allows you to safely remove Windows Installer settings from your computer in the event of a problem. If you experience installation problems, you can use this tool to remove registry entries before performing a re-install.

MSPaint = When you install a program that provides filters for other graphic file types, Microsoft Paint should be able to use them. These filters may already be present under C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\Grphflt, but the registry entries may need to be updated. JSIINC has a download that includes both the filter files and the registry update.
MSProxy = Microsoft Proxy Server 2.0 and Windows 2000.

Also see ISA
MSSearch = Search all of Microsoft. This search engine includes the Knowledge Base, MSDN Technical Library, and TechNet. It will also allow you to search within the results of the initial search.
MultiApps = To open more than one app, go to the Programs Menu, keep the shift key held down and open whatever you want. To close more than one app, keep the ctrl key held down, tag the apps on the Toolbar and choose close. Right click on the last app to avoid an extra click.
MultiMonitors = How to Set Up and Troubleshoot Multiple Monitors in Windows 2000.
NAT = Windows 2000 has built in NAT (Network Address Translation). Both Professional and Server can use ICS, Server can use the more robust RRAS. RRAS keeps track of the address and port translations for outbound connections so that the proper clients on the private network receive the packets back from the external network. For 3rd party NAT solutions, see NAT2.

Also see ICS  RRAS
NAT2 = 3rd party NAT solutions include:

GNAT Box (FreeBSD) -
IPRoute (DOS) -
NAT32 -
ShareTheNet (Linux) -
Sygate -
Winroute (recommended) -

Also see
Net.exe = Net.exe can be used to perform administrative tasks from the command-line. Run Net /? to see the available options.

Also see CommandLine
NetDiag = The NetDiag.exe support tool helps isolate networking and connectivity problems by performing a series of tests to determine the state of your network client and whether it is functional. These tests and the network status information they expose, give network administrators a more direct means of identifying and isolating network problems.
NetDom = The NetDom.exe support tool allows administrators to manage Windows 2000 domains and trust relationships from the command-line. NetDom can join a Windows 2000 PC to a domain, manage computer accounts for domain members, establish and manage (one or two-way) trust relationships between domains, and verify and \ or reset the secure channel for domain members, BDCs in an NT4 domain, and specific Windows 2000 replicas.
SP3 Update:
NetMeeting = NetMeeting is installed by default to C:\Program Files\NetMeeting\conf.exe.
Remove: rundll32.exe setupapi,InstallHinfSection NetMtg.Remove 132 msnetmtg.inf
Install: rundll32.exe setupapi,InstallHinfSection DefaultInstall 132 msnetmtg.inf
NetSH = Netsh.exe, a native Windows 2000 command-line utility, can be used to change IP configuration information and retrieve diagnostic or current state information. Run netsh -c interface dump >filename.txt to take a snapshot of your existing configuration, netsh -f filename.txt to load a saved configuration. - also see WinSockFix
NetStat = Run netstat -an to see which TCP ports are in use, netstat -an | find "established" /i to see only what connections are established.
NetwareGateway = You can create a Windows share for a Netware volume by using Gateway Services for NetWare. For 9X DFS clients, this may be the only way to view a Netware volume.
NetWorking = Networking Resources.

Also see FandP  Firewalls  GroupPolicy  ICS  Modems  NetworkMonitoring  RRAS  SubnetCalc  TCP/IP  VPN
NetworkMonitoring = Network Monitoring and Traffic Analysis solutions: links to information about NetMon and 3rd party utilities.
NetZero = How to Configure NetZero to Work with Windows 2000.
News = Tech info oriented news sites:
NewsGroups = Newgroup links.
NewSID = NewSID is a program that changes a computer's SID. It is free, comes with full source, and is a Win32 program, meaning that it can easily be run on systems that have been previously cloned. NewSID works with Windows NT4 and Windows 2000.

Also see SID2
NLB = The Network Load Balancing (NLB) feature in Windows 2000 Advanced and Datacenter Servers is a highly integrated version of the Windows NT Load Balancing Service (WLBS). NLB lets as many as 32 servers share the load of IP-based applications, such as Web, FTP, and VPN applications.
NLTest = The NLTest support tool can be used to list PDCs, force shutdowns, query and check on the status of trusts, and test trust relationships and the state of domain controller (DC) replication in Windows 2000 and NT. It can also force a user-account database into sync on Windows NT4 domain controllers.
NoNewWindow = When you map a new network drive in Explorer, the system opens the newly mapped drive in a new window by default. To stop Win2K Explorer from opening a new window when you map a network drive, press the Shift key before you click Finish, and continue to hold down the Shift key for a short time after you click Finish.
NoResolveTrack = If a shortcut to a file breaks, Windows 2000 automatically attempt to locate the destination by searching all associated paths. Set NoResolveTrack (DWORD) to 1 under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer to disable this behavior.
NoSyncInternetSettings = Setting NoSyncInternetSettings=1 in %windir%\notes.ini prevents Lotus Notes from editing Internet Explorer's proxy settings. Make sure there is a hard return at the end of the .ini file or the last line will not be read. To automate this, run (make sure to use >> to append, > will overwrite):
echo NoSyncInternetSettings=1 >>%windir%\notes.ini
NoUninstall = When you upgrade from Windows 95, 98, or NT to Windows 2000, the Setup wizard displays a warning message informing you that your current operating system will be replaced if you continue. Windows 2000 does not contain an uninstall feature to let you return to your previous Windows operating system.

Also see Install  Upgrade
Now = The Now resource kit tool is similar to the Echo command, but with a timestamp. It displays the current date and time on standard output, followed by any command-line arguments you add.
NT4DomainLogon = Troubleshooting adding a Windows 2000 PC to a Windows NT4 based domain.

Also see Authentication
NT4FaultTolerant = Preparing to create or modify a Fault Tolerant Set in Windows NT4.
NT4in2k = Where is X from NT4 in Windows 2000?
NT4InstallSize = If you format a partition as NTFS during the text based NT4 installation, it formats it as FAT (Windows 2000 formats directly as NTFS) and then converts it in the final stages of installation. This is why NT4 is limited to a maximum size of 4096 MB during the install. See the URLs for workarounds, but don't exceed 7.8 GB for C:. Also, the updated Atapi.sys from >=SP4 is needed to access all space on drives > 8GB.
NT4onNTFS5 = How to install NT4 if C: is NTFS5. When you reboot after the initial NT4 setup, do not continue with the install. Replace NTFS.SYS with a copy from>= SP4 in the directory where NT4 has copied its setup files, then reboot and continue with the NT4 setup. One of several ways to copy NTFS.SYS is to boot to the Windows 2000 CD, then run the recovery console and use its copy command.

Also see RecoveryConsole  SPExtract
NTConnect = NTConnect is a freeware program that provides many of the same capabilities of a Novell Netware login script under NT.
NTDetect = The Installd.cmd resource kit tool installs the debug (or checked) version of, which provides more diagnostic information, to help isolate a problem with hardware components loaded at startup.
NTFS = NTFS info. Versions: XP = 3.1, 2K = 3.0, and NT 4.0 = 1.2

Also see DiskManagement  FileSystems  MFT  NTFS3.0  NTFSDOS
NTFS3.0 = New Capabilities and Features of the NTFS 3.0 File System. Note: At one time Windows 2000's version of NTFS was labeled 5 but is now called 3.0.

Also see NTFS  NT4onNTFS5
NTFSDOS = NTFSDOS is an MS-DOS utility that mounts NTFS drives so your DOS applications can use them. NTFS98 is a much better long term solution for NTFS support under Windows 9X, but NTFSDOS will work. For Long File Name support in 9X, load NTFSDOS from autoexec.bat with NTFSHLP.VXD in the same directory. The read only versions are free.

Also see DOSMemory  PQFile
NumberOfRings = How to Set the Number of Rings for RAS Auto-Answer in Windows NT4 / 2000.
Numlock = To turn on numlock, set InitialKeyboardIndicators to 2 under HKCU\Control Panel\Keyboard. Also set the value under HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Control Panel\Keyboard if you want new profiles to have numlock turned on.
OEMLogo = Add your own information to General tab of the System Properties in Windows 2000. Note: This works in Windows 9X as well, but do not use quotes in the Line?= section of oeminfo.ini.
Office = Information and materials about Microsoft Office: downloads, learning tools, developer information, and other resources.

Also see OfficePolEdit  OfficeTemplates  OfficeViewers  Outlook
OfficePolEdit = The Microsoft Office Resource Kits include updated versions of the System Policy Editor and a number of system policy template files that provide the means for controlling the installed configuration of >= Office 2000.
OfficeTemplates = Search for / download pre-built templates for Office 97 and 2000.
OfficeViewers = Microsoft Office converters and viewers: install a converter to open files created by different versions of Office programs or install a viewer to open an Office file as read only.
Access Snapshot 97 - 2003
Excel 97 - 2000 (Limited XP Support)
Power Point 97 - 2003
Visio 5 - 2003
Word 97 - 2000 (Limited XP Support)
Word 2003
OfflineFolders = Offline Folders allow laptop and mobile users to take the contents of specific network drives with them as they travel (provided they have enough disk space).
OH = Open Handles (Oh.exe) is a command-line resource kit tool that shows the handles of all open windows. The tool can also be used to show only information relating to a specific process, object type, or object name. This feature is useful for finding the process that has a file open when a sharing violation occurs.
OldDOS = Supplemental tools included in previous versions of MS-DOS, but not included in Windows 9X (DOS7) installations.  Expand.exe,, Interlnk.exe, Qbasic.exe, Undelete.exe...

Also see for help with DOS7 commands.
OleView = The OLE/COM Object Viewer (Oleview.exe) resource kit tool browses, configures, and tests Microsoft Component Object Model (COM) classes installed on a computer.
OpenFiles = An Administrator or an Account Operator can run Net File to see what files are open on a PC. There are also utilities that will allow you to work with remote PCs.

Also see Compmgmt.msc
OpenWith = In Windows 2000 you can right click on a file (previous versions of Windows required that you shift + right click) and choose Open With to use a different program to open a file. To remove listed programs, edit entries under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\FileExts\<.extention>\OpenWithList.
OSE = Guide to using Office Server Extensions (which ships with Office 2000).
OU = Organizational Units (OU) are Active Directory containers into which you can place users, groups, computers, and other organizational units. An OU is the smallest scope or unit to which you can assign Group Policy settings or delegate administrative authority.
Outlook = Help with Microsoft Outlook.;EN-US;out

Also see Office  OutlookSecurity  OWA  SMIME  WinMail.dat
OutlookExpress = Outlook Express FAQs.;EN-US;oex
Manually Remove and Reinstall -
Back Up and Restore -
View Restricted Attachments -

Also see SMIME
OutlookForms = Resources and answers to commonly asked questions about creating Outlook forms.
OutlookFormsUpdate = When you try to open a form in Outlook 2002 that was designed with the "Electronic Forms Designer Runtime", you may receive error messages: Cannot find file (or one of its components), Cannot find Vb40016.DLL, and The form you selected could not be displayed. Microsoft has released a fix for this. Basically, the download is packaging the %windir%\system 16 Bit subsystem files that Office 2000 installs (this is why you don't get the error on a PC where Office was upgraded).
OutlookSecurity = Bypassing the Outlook security update for attachments.

Note: Chilton Preview,, is my choice in Outlook versions lower than 2002.
OverClocking = CPU OverClocking information.
OWA = Detailed instructions on how to install and set up Outlook Web Access (OWA).
PageFile = Information about virtual memory in Windows 2000 / NT.
Pagefile9X = Windows 9X and Windows NT4 Can Share Virtual Memory.
PaintDesktopVersion = In beta versions of Windows, the system displays the version in the bottom-right corner. To enable this display on final versions of Windows, set PaintDesktopVersion (DWORD) to 1 under HKCU\Control Panel\Desktop. Relog for the change to take effect. Setting this entry to 0 doesn't seem to remove the info in a beta version.
ParallelInstall = You can install a second copy (parallel installation) of Windows 2000 / NT into a different directory for emergency recovery purposes. The recovery console limits the need to resort to this.
ParallelZip = Iomega software and troubleshooting info for Windows 2000 and Iomega parallel port Zip drives.
Partitions = Definition of System and Boot Partition
Passwords = To change a password from a PC not running Active Directory, right click on a username in the Users section of the Computer Management console. You can also change a password by hitting Ctrl + Alt + Del and selecting Change Password or with the net user command.
Path = The set command can edit the path, but will only work for commands run from that cmd prompt session. To permanently edit the path, open the System applet in the control panel (right click or alt + double click on My Computer and choose properties). Go to the Advanced tab and select Environmental Variables. Select Path, then Edit. You can also edit Path under HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment. Use Reg.exe to automate this.

Also see SafeDllSearchMode
PathMan = This command-line resource kit tool adds or removes components from system or user paths. PathMan can modify any number of paths in a single call, and it includes error checking that can handle path abnormalities such as repeated entries, missing entries, and adjacent semicolons.
PathPing = Use the command-line PathPing utility to troubleshoot IP connectivity issues. The PathPing utility combines features from the Ping and Tracert utilities, and has additional features not found in those utilities. Windows 2000 magazine calls PathPing 'Traceroute on Steroids'.
PeertoPeer = Configuring Windows 2000 Professional to work in a Peer-to-Peer Workgroup.
PeertoPeer9x = Windows 9X Peer to Peer networking info / help.

Also see IPC$
Performance = Windows 2000 Performance Tuning.
Permissions = NTFS permissions are rules associated with objects that regulate which users and groups can gain access to an object and in what manner. Effective permissions are the sum of the permissions assigned to the users and their groups.

Also see CACLS  DefaultPermissions  XCACLS
Perms = The Perms resource kit tool displays a user's access permissions for a specified file or set of files.
PersonalizedMenus = In the Windows 2000 Start Menu, only recently used applications are displayed by default, with the rest being hidden until you hold the mouse over the double-arrows. To disable this: click Start, Settings, Task Bar & Start Menu. Uncheck 'Use Personalized Menus' on the General tab. You can also set set IntelliMenus to No in the registry.

Also see ExplorerDefaults
PFMon = PFMon is a command-line resource kit tool that monitors page faults (including hard page faults) that occur while an application is running. Use Pfmon to trace the source and number of page faults in a process and display the data in the command window, write it to a log file, or both.
PMon = The PMon.exe support tool provides total and per process values for nonpaged and paged pool memory. PMon also monitors the committed memory values shown in the PMon display for increases; the process with the leak typically has an increasing value reported under Commit Charge.
PoolMon = The PoolMon.exe support tool monitors memory tags, including total paged and non-paged pool bytes. PoolMon is often used to help detect memory leaks.
Ports = Information about TCP/IP Port Assignments.
POSIX = POSIX is a set of IEEE standards covering programming, security, networking, and graphical interface for programs that can be ported between Windows and UNIX.
Recommended -

Also see Interoperability
PowerToys = PowerToys are add-on (unsupported) utilities available from Microsoft. Command Prompt Here, QuickRes, Send To, TweakUI, as well as some of the others can be very useful.

2000 and NT - and
95 -
XP - and
PPPoE = PPPoE stands for Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet, a newer alternative to traditional bridging and routing for high-speed Internet connections. Although not an Internet standard, PPPoE is described in the Informational RFC 2516.

Also see Modems
PPTPPing = The Pptpclnt.exe and Pptpsrv.exe support tools verify that the required protocol and port for Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is being routed from a PPTP client to a PPTP server or vice-versa. In order for a PPTP client to access a remote PPTP server, all routers in between the two hosts MUST allow traffic to pass through TCP port 1723 (PPTP) and must support protocol type 47.
PrettyPath = By default, Explorer changes the case of your filenames so that a file you name c:\iLikeTOTypeTHiS appears as c:\Iliketotypethis. Microsoft calls this PrettyPath. This behavior can be disabled by setting DontPrettyPath to 1 under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced.
Prices = Price comparisons and vendor ratings for hardware and software.,aid,102522,pg,4,00.asp
PrintMig = Printer Migrator performs a complete backup of Windows NT4 or 2000 printer servers, including the registry entries and printer drivers, and stores the data in a cabinet (.cab) file. The backed up configuration can be restored (migrated) to a different print server (NT4 or 2000).
PrinterNotification = Printer PopUps and Event Logging. You can modify entries for the "Print Server" in the registry or by using Start / Settings / Printers / File / Server Properties / Advanced. You will will need to stop and start the Spooler service or reboot for the changes to take effect.
Printing = Windows 2000 Printer Management.

Also see Fixprnsv  PrintMig  PrinterNotification
Priority = How can I run an Application at a higher priority?
PrivateIP = IP addresses are set aside in each of the IP classes for private use: -, -, & -; see RFC1918 for details.
Profiles = Step-by-Step guide to user data and user settings.

Also see UserManagement
ProfileRecovery = Recovering a lost local user profile.
ProgramFiles = Relocating the Program Files directory.
ProtectedWebSite = The syntax to automatically login to a web site that requires a username and a password is:
Example: to login to with the username of testuser and the password of testpass, use the following line:

Note: This behavior in IE is disabled if you apply the 02/02/2004 IE security patch.
See for workarounds. In brief testing, the syntax does work with Mozilla but not Opera.
PsExec = PsExec is a freeware utility to execute processes on a remote PC
PStat = PStat is a character-based resource kit tool that lists all running threads and displays their status. This tool is similar to Qslice.exe, but uses a command-line rather than a GUI interface.
PuList = PuList is a command-line resource kit tool that displays processes running on local or remote computers. PuList is similar to TList, but also lists the user name associated with each process on a local computer.
PViewer = The Process Viewer support tool (Pviewer.exe) is a Windows-based tool that displays information about a running process and allows you to stop (kill) processes and change process priority. Process Viewer is similar to Pview.exe, but also allows you to look at processes on remote computers.
QBasic = If you need to run QBasic in Windows 2000, you can copy Qbasic.exe and Qbasic.hlp from a Microsoft Windows NT4 based computer, or you can expand the files from a Windows NT 4.0 CD-ROM.
QChain = QChain.exe provides a safe way to install multiple Pre-SP3 HotFixes with a single reboot. Post-SP3 hotfixes incorporate Qchain functionality, so Qchain itself is no longer needed.
QoS = QoS offers a way for networks to give priority to certain data, users, or applications so that mission critical functions get the bandwidth they need.
QSlice = The CPU Usage by Processes (QSlice.exe) resource kit tool shows the percentage of total CPU usage for each process in a system. This tool is similar to Pstat.exe, but it presents the information in a graphical format.
QuickEdit = Open a cmd prompt, go to properties. Check Quick Edit Mode. This will let you paste directly to the command-line with a right click. To copy text, highlight and press enter. This option is enabled by default in Windows 2000. In any Windows OS, you can also drag and drop an item from explorer to the cmd prompt window and get the complete path for the file to appear.
QuickRes = QuickRes enables you to change your display's visible screen area (resolution), bit depth, and vertical refresh rate from the taskbar, without restarting the operating system. There are different versions, for NT and 2000 it is a resource kit tool only, for 9X it is a downloadable PowerToy.
Quotas = How to Enable Disk Quotas in Windows 2000.
RAID = A Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) takes a number of separate hard drives and uses them together to operate as a single, virtual hard drive. Windows 2000 Server support 3 levels of RAID: RAID 0 (Striping - Volume Sets), RAID1 (Mirroring / Duplexing), and RAID 5 (Striping with parity). Use hardware RAID if possible.

Also see Mirror  Striping
RAMDisk = Microsoft has released a Windows 2000 RAMDISK driver.
RDISK = RDISK has been moved to NTBACKUP under Windows 2000. You can run a script to perform the equivalent in Windows 2000 of running RDISK /s under NT4 to create an ERD.
RdpClip = RdpClip (File Copy) is a resource kit tool that extends the Terminal Services cut, copy, and paste capabilities. In Windows 2000, Terminal Services can cut and paste text and graphics between the client and server sessions. Using File Copy, you are also able to use cut, copy, and paste to transfer files and folders.
RecoveryConsole = The recovery console allows you to obtain limited access to NTFS, FAT, and FAT32 volumes without starting the Windows GUI. It can be accessed during startup (if you installed it with winnt32.exe /cmdcons), or from the repair install process. Add SetCommand to 1 (DWORD) under HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Setup\RecoveryConsole so you can use the SET command to access your floppy drive or other directories.
Reg.exe = Reg.exe is a support tool that can be used to modify registry values from the command-line.
NT4 version (2K version does work in NT4 though) -
RegClean = The RegClean utility is designed to clean up unnecessary entries in your registry.
RegComments = If a line in a .reg file begins with a semicolon, it is considered to be a comment.
RegDel2K = You can remove Windows 2K registry entries using a batch file. Import a registry file with regedit /s that has the syntax for the entries you want to remove: [-KeyName] or "Value"=-

Also see Reg.exe
RegDel9x = How to remove Windows 9x registry entries using a batch file. Note that registry values with spaces need quotes in the .inf file. Example: To remove the policy settings on a 9X PC, right click on recover.inf and choose install. Alternatively, run this in a batch file:
RUNDLL SETUPX.DLL,InstallHinfSection RunIt 0 Path\recover.inf
RegEntry = Open GP.chm or search for 'Group Policy Registry Table' in Regentry.chm from the resource kit. The table displays the Group Policy settings in the Administrative Templates folder and the registry entries that they change.
Registry = Editing and Managing the Windows 2000 Registry. For compatibilty with other operating systems when exporting from regedit, choose save as type REGEDIT4. This will change the top line of the file and make it ANSI instead of UniCode. Make sure there are two hard returns at the end of a .reg file so that the last line can be imported.

Also see Reg.exe  RegClean  RegComments RegDel2K  RegDel9x  RegEntry  Regmon
Regmon = Regmon is a Registry monitoring utility that will show you which applications are accessing your Registry, which keys they are accessing, and the Registry data that they are reading and writing - all in real-time. Remember to set the filter to eliminate values you don't want to see: explore*;vptray*;...
Relog = The Relog.exe resource kit tool extracts performance counters from logs created by the Performance Logs and Alerts service into one of the other supported file formats: text-TSV (for tab-delimited text), text-CSV (for comma-delimited text), or binary-BIN.
Remote = Remote.exe allows you to run command-line programs on remote computers. Remote does no security authorization, and will permit anyone with a remote client (remote /c) to connect to your remote server (remote /s). By contrast, Rcmd.exe: Remote Command Service, a tool from the Resource Kit, authenticates all users with standard Windows 2000 user authentication procedures.

Also see PsExec  SupportTools  WSRemote
RemoteControl = Windows 2000 server will allow remote control using Terminal Services in remote administration mode. There are many 3rd party remote control solutions as well.

Also see SSH  TSRemote  VNC
RemoveAdminShares = Windows 2000 creates default shares, such as C$ and ADMIN$ which are accessible only by members of the Administrators group. You can modify the registry to disable these shares. Note: if the ADMIN$ share is missing, you may receive the error "The RPC Service is not available." when you try to install a service pack.

Also see Shares
RemoveLinux = How to Remove Linux and Install Windows 2000 or Windows NT on Your Computer.

Also see DualBootLinux
RemoveReservedFiles = To remove files with reserved names in Windows 2000, you can use a syntax that bypasses the normal reserve-word checks: DEL \\.\driveletter:\path\filename. You can also use the POSIX command, rm.
RenameServer = Information about renaming Domain Controllers and Exchange, IIS, SQL servers.

Also see DomainRename
RepAdmin = The Replication Diagnostics Tool support tool (RepAdmin.exe) assists administrators in diagnosing replication problems between Windows 2000 domain controllers.
RepairBootSector = Repairing 2K's Boot Sector: Start your computer using either the Setup boot disks or by booting from the Windows 2000 CD. For Setup options, press R for Repair. If you choose the Emergency Repair process, select Manual Repair, then Inspect Boot Sector. You can also run FixBoot if you choose the Recovery Console.

Also see ERD  RecoveryConsole
Replication = Overview of the Active Directory replication architecture.

Also see RepAdmin  ReplMon
ReplMon = The Active Directory Replication Monitor support tool (Replmon.exe) enables administrators to view the low-level status of Active Directory replication, force synchronization between domain controllers, view the topology in a graphical format, and monitor the status and performance of domain controller replication through a graphical interface.
SP3 Update:
ResKit = The Resource Kit can help manage Active Directory, TCP/IP, security, users, groups, the registry, and automate recurring jobs. It includes nearly 300 software utilities, some of which are publicly available. W2rktool.chm explains the individual tools in detail.

Also see SupportTools
RestoreShares = Saving and Restoring Existing Windows NT and 2000 Shares.

Also see Shares
RFC = Request for Comments (RFCs) are the published specification documents of the Internet protocol suite, as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and its steering group the IESG.
RID = The relative identifier (RID) is the part of a SID that is unique to an object in a domain.

Also see SID
RIS = Remote Installation Services (RIS) ships as part of the Windows 2000 Server operating system.

Also see Deploy  SlipStream
RmtShare = NT4 command-line Resource Kit utility to create shares and/or change share permissions on local or remote PCs.
Example - Create a text file, UserList.txt, that contains the usernames (which are also the share names) and run a for loop in a batch file that creates shares on server \\servername in the d:\users\ subdirectories:
for /f "Tokens=*" %%i in ('type UserList.txt') do rmtshare \\servername\%%i=d:\users\%%i /grant %%i:f /grant administrator:f /remove everyone (extract to get rmtshare.exe)

Also see Shares
Routing = How to implement routing for Windows 2000.
RoxioFTP = Go to Roxio's update website and find the name of the file that you want to download.
For pre-version 5 .exe updates, add its name to
Deluxe 4.0 or 4.01 to 4.02 - ecdc_v402_dlx.exe
OEM (Standard) 4.0 or 4.01 to 4.02 - ecdc_v402_std.exe
4.02 (Deluxe or OEM) or later to version 4.05 - ecdc_v405_up.exe
3.5c patch - floppy107.exe
5.3.5 Basic - ecdc_v5.3.5.10_basic_enu.exe
5.3.5 Platinum - ecdc_v5.3.5.10_plt_enu.exe
CD Drive List Update - DriveUp5.3.5c.exe
RPCCfg = The Rpccfg.exe resource kit tool configures Microsoft Remote Procedure Call (RPC) to listen on specified ports. It also displays the port settings and resets ports to the default settings for the system. Developers and administrators can use this tool to set, reset, and verify ports used for RPC instead of editing the registry. This version of Rpccfg.exe runs on Windows 2000 and XP.
RPCDump = Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is command-line resource kit tool that queries endpoints for status and other information on RPC. RPC Dump interrogates the endpoint mapper database to obtain a list of every registered endpoint. If the /i switch is specified, the tool pings each endpoint to determine if the service that registered the endpoint is listening.
RPCPING = The RPC Connectivity Verification (RPC Ping) resource kit tool confirms Remote Procedure Call (RPC) connectivity between RPC servers and clients on a network. RPC Ping checks to see if RPC services are responding to RPC requests from client computers.
RRAS = RRAS and RAS info. RRAS allows LAN-to-LAN routing and remote office connectivity over private wide area networks (WANs), or over the Internet by using secure virtual private network (VPN) connections.

Also see ICS
RSDiag = The remote storage diagnostic support tool utility (Rsdiag.exe) examines remote storage (HSM / RSS) databases and displays diagnostic information. RSDiag can output each of the Remote Storage databases and property files in text format. The syntax is case sensitive.
RSDir = The Remote Storage File Analysis support tool Utility (Rsdir.exe) examines Remote Storage reparse points, displaying Remote Storage information for files in the current directory and its subdirectories. RSDir displays information only for files located on volumes managed by Remote Storage.
RSM = Removable Storage Management (RSM) is a standard interface in Windows 2000 to control most types of removable media, including CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, magneto-optical, Jaz, and Zip in both standalone and library configurations.
RSS = Remote Storage Service (RSS) is a feature of Windows 2000 Server that allows you to extend disk space without adding more hard disks. RSS monitors the amount of free space available on a local volume and copies eligible files to a tape library automatically.

Also see RSDiag
RunAs = Use Run As to start applications as the Administrator while logged on as a user. Select an application icon (works from the Programs menu as well), hold down the SHIFT key and right-click the icon, choose Run As.

Also see TqcRunAs
RunDll = RUNDLL and RUNDLL32 are two utilities supplied with Windows 95/98 and NT. They can call DLL functions from the command-line, allowing you to create extremely powerful batch files.

Also see Batch
RunLogonScriptSync = You can control if Windows will display the desktop before your login script finishes. Add RunLogonScriptSync (REG_DWORD) to HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon. 0 = Don't wait to load desktop, 1 = Wait.
SafeDllSearchMode = By default, programs will search for DLLs in the following order 1) .exe file directory, 2) current directory, 3) system and Windows directories (system path), and 4) environment Path. In Windows XP and now with SP3 in Windows 2000, this order can be changed to where 2 and 3 are swapped (the system path is searched before the current directory). To do this, set SafeDllSearchMode (REG_DWORD) to 1 under HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager.
SafeMode = If Windows won't start correctly, you can use safe mode or other startup options to start the computer with only the minimal necessary services. Restart your computer, press F8 for startup options, use the arrow keys to select the option you want to use.
SAN = Storage area network (SAN) is a new architecture for a pool of centralized storage. A SAN usually includes multiple servers working off a centralized data store made up of highly reliable and redundant hardware, including RAID.
Sandra = SiSoft Sandra (the System ANalyser, Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant) is an information & diagnostic utility. It should provide most of the information (including undocumented) you need to know about your hardware, software and other devices whether hardware or software.
SC = The resource kit tool sc.exe can be used to remotely switch the start value, start and stop, or create a service.
Scheduler = Windows 2000's Scheduler Service allows administrators to automate common tasks or start a task at a specific day or time, without having to be present on the network.
Scmapper.sys = When you try to install a scanner, Windows 2000 might prompt you for the file scmapper.sys. If you receive this prompt, save an empty text file as scsimap.sys (not scmapper.sys) under C:\WINNT\system32.
Scripts = Automate common tasks and create your own tools for Windows 2000 using batch files, logon scripts, or more complex scripts using Perl, VB, and Windows Scripting Host (WSH).

Also see Batch  KiXtart  RunLogonScriptSync
SCSIFaq = Frequently Asked Questions List for comp.periphs.scsi.
SDCheck = The Security Descriptor Check support tool Utility (Sdcheck.exe) checks access control list propagation and replication for specified objects in the directory. This tool enables an administrator to determine if access control lists are being inherited correctly and if access control list changes are being replicated from one domain controller to another.
Security = Windows 2000 Network and System Security.

Also see Advisories  IPSec  SecurityCheckList  SecurityConfig  SecurityDefaults  SecurityPatch  SecurityPolicy
SecurityCheckList = Guidelines / suggestions for securing Windows 2000 Workstations, Servers, and Networks. Read 'Windows 2000 Installation Security Checklist' and other articles.
SecurityConfig = Using the Security Configuration Tool Set.
SecurityDefaults = Default Access Control Settings in Windows 2000.

Also see DefaultPermissions
SecurityPatch = Automatic search on 'security' for any Windows operating system.'security'&OpSysID=1
SecurityPolicy = Configuring Enterprise Security Policies.

Also see GroupPolicy
SED = SED (Stream Editor) is a powerful Unix text editing utility. One if its functions allows you to create a new text file that excludes or replaces a specific text string. Example using UnixDos's version: Change Win.ini's load=C:\Windows\prog1.exe C:\Windows\prog2.exe to load=C:\Windows\prog2.exe
sed "s:C\:\\Windows\\prog1.exe::g" C:\Windows\win.ini>C:\Windows\Win.iny
sed "s:load= :load=:g" C:\Windows\win.iny>C:\Windows\Win.inz
Echo Y|Copy C:\Windows\Win.inz C:\Windows\win.ini
SendTo = Send To X 1.2 is an updated version of Send To Any Folder. It creates extra icons in the current users SendTo folder including ClipBoard as Contents, Clipboard as Name (copies the location of the file name), Desktop (create shortcut), and as an attachment to your Email program.
If you have trouble downloading this, you can get it from here.
ServicePacks = Service Packs and HotFixes for Windows 2000 and NT and BackOffice products.;EN-US;sp

Also see HotFixes  SlipStream  SPExtract  SPSourcePath
Services = Managing Windows 2000 Services: general tips and trouble shooting information.

Also see AutoExNT  DependOnService  ExeAsService
SetupPrompt = You can open a command prompt during GUI-mode Setup to troubleshoot, copy drivers, Start / Stop services, run a tool, etc..., by pressing SHIFT+F10.
SetX = SetX is a resource kit tool that can set environmental variables from the command-line in the the user or computer environment. It can also get the values of registry keys and write them to text files.
SFC = The System File Checker (SFC) is a component of the Windows File Protection (WFP) feature. SFC will scan protected system files and replace incorrect versions from the installation source files. It will also repopulate WFP's DllCache folder.

Also see SourcePath  WFP
Shares98 = You may experience a long delay when viewing Windows 98 shares from a Windows 2000 PC because Windows 2000 checks to determine if Scheduled Tasks are enabled on the Windows 98 computer.
Shares = Administering Shared Folders.

Also see DrMapSrv  RemoveAdminShares  RestoreShares  RmtShare  ShrPubw 
ShellOpenFix = If your shortcuts no longer work, your .exe association may be corrupt. Confirm these values exist in the registry: 1) HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\exefile\shell\open - "EditFlags"=hex:00,00,00,00 2) HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\exefile\shell\open\command - @="\"%1\" %*"

Also see CorruptLnk
ShowGrps = ShowGrps is a command-line resource kit tool used to view the groups to which a user belongs.
ShowMbrs = ShowMbrs is a command-line resource kit tool used to view the user names of members of a given group.
ShowPerf = The ShowPerf resource kit tool dumps and displays raw performance data. ShowPerf reads the performance data from the registry, and then displays the unformatted and unsorted output in a list box. You can use ShowPerf together with ExCtrLst to troubleshoot suspected problems in the performance registry or problems with a specific performance DLL.
ShrPubw = If you are logged on as an administrator and that same administrator account exists on a remote PC, you can use C:\WINNT\system32\shrpubw.exe on your PC to create a share on the remote PC. This will not work with the RunAs command unless you obtain he post SP1 update.

Also see Shares
ShutDownProblems = How to troubleshoot shutdown problems in Windows 2000.
SID = The security identifier (SID) is a unique name that identifies a user to the Windows 2000 security system. A SID can represent a user, a group of users, or a PC. Whenever a domain controller creates a user, group, or computer object, a unique SID is assigned. The SID consists of a domain security identifier that is the same for all SIDs in the domain and a relative identifier (RID) that is unique for each SID.

Also see SID2
SID2 = It is important that each PC have a unique machine SID for security in Windows 2000 Workgroup environments, and for security on removable media formatted as NTFS. Once the GUI portion of a setup has been reached, a machine SID is assigned. If a cloned image is made of a PC with a machine SID, the duplicated SID should be modified.

Also see NewSID  SysPrep
SIDWalk = The Security Administration support tools (SIDWalker.exe) are a set of programs to help system administrators manage access-control policies on Windows 2000 and NT systems. Every file in the NTFS file system and every registry key has a unique access control list (ACL), granting access rights to file resources to users and groups and defining what specific access rights each is granted.
SizReqBuf = Because the Windows 2000 redirector does not support RAW SMB mode, the file-copy write process from a 2000 Pro PC to an NT4 Server may take up to four times longer than reading the same files from the NT4 Server. Work around: add to NT4 server's registry: SizReqBuf (DWORD, Decimal, 65535) to HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\lanmanserver\parameters.
Sleep = Sleep is a command-line resource kit typically used in batch files to cause the PC delay execution of the next command for a set period of time. You can also use the ping command to get this type of delay. To Sleep for 5 seconds: @ping -n 6>nul
SlipStream = In Windows 2000 you can integrate a service pack with the installation files in a distribution folder using Update.exe (runs in >= Windows2000 only) from the service pack CD-ROM or an extracted service pack. To update D:\Win2k\I386, run: Update.exe -s:D:\Win2k

Also see Deploy  ServicePacks WindowsUpdateError
SMB = SMB is the native method of file and print sharing for Microsoft operating systems (Microsoft Networking). Windows for Workgroups, 9X, 2000, and NT all include SMB clients and servers. SMB is also used by OS/2, Lan Manager, and Banyan Vines. There are also SMB servers and clients for Unix, such as Samba and smbclient.
SMIME = How to configure Outlook and Outlook Express to send signed and encrypted e-mail messages using the Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) mail standard.

OL98 -
OL2000 -
OL2002 -
SMS = Microsoft's Systems Management Server allows for automated inventory management of workstations, software deployment, and remote troubleshooting for medium to large WANs.
SNA = SNA Server 4.0 is a comprehensive gateway and application integration platform that seamlessly knits together the two worlds of mainframes and client/server networks allowing organizations to leverage existing host data to distributed applications, and preserving investments in existing AS/400 and mainframe-based systems.
SNMP = Simple network management protocol (SNMP) provides the ability to remotely troubleshoot and monitor hubs, routers, and other devices without having to be physically present at the device itself. Windows NT and Windows 2000 do not come with an SNMP management console, so a third-party console may be necessary for SNMP to be useful.

Also see SNMPUtilg
SNMPUtilg = The SNMP Troubleshooting tool (Snmputilg.exe) is a graphical utility which system administrators can use to obtain information from SNMP manageable systems on the network. There is an update for this Support Tool at

Also see ResKit  SupportTools
Soon = Soon is a resource kit tool used to schedule commands and programs to run in the near future on either the local or a remote computer, by generating and running an appropriate AT command.
SourcePath = To avoid being prompted for the CD when you run sfc /scannow, point these entries to your distribution folder: 'Installation Sources' (Reg_Multi_SZ, use regedt32) and 'SourcePath' under HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Setup. ServicePackSourcePath should only need to be modified if your distribution folder was sliptreamed. Set the values to the directory below i386. Also edit SourcePath (include i386 here) under HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion.

Also see DriverCache
SoundSchemes = When you edit a Scheme for Sounds, the entries are stored under HKCU\AppEvents\Schemes. You can export the schemes key for use on another PC. I modify the .reg file to include only the name of the scheme used and the .Current entry.

Unicode regedit exported text file: sounds.reg.txt
SP1 = Windows 2000 Service Pack 1.

Also see ServicePacks
SP2 = Windows 2000 Service Pack 2.

Also see ServicePacks  SP2SRP1
SP2SRP1 = The Windows 2000 Security Rollup Package (January, 2002) provides a cumulative rollup of security updates that were offered between the release of SP2 and SP3.

Also see HotFixes
SP3 = Windows 2000 Service Pack 3. Read about the issues and test in your environment before deploying.

Also see ServicePacks  WindowsUpdateError
SP4 = Windows 2000 Service Pack 4 was released on June 26th, 2003.
SPExtract = You can extract the contents of a Service Pack file by including the /x switch. Since you are only extracting the files, this can be done from any operating system regardless of what OS the service pack was intended for. For example, from a command prompt in Windows 95, run nt4sp6a128.exe /x to extract the contents of NT4's Service Pack 6 to a directory that you will be prompted to specify.
SpoolDirectory = You can change the default printer spool directory for all printers or the printer spool directory for specific printers by editing DefaultSpoolDirectory and/or SpoolDirectory under HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Print\Printers.
SPSourcePath = Windows 2000 service packs create a large directory in C:\Winnt\ServicePackFiles\I386. The location can be changed by modifying ServicePackSourcePath (do not include I386 in the path) under HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Setup. If you have a local SlipSteamed I386 directory, the ServicePackFiles are redundant as long as the ServicePackSourcePath registry value is updated (if you installed from a SlipSteamed source, the ServicePackFiles directory doesn't exist and the registry value points to installation source).
SQL = SQL Server information.
SrvComment = Set the Network Neighborhood comment for a Win2K machine.

1) Start the Management Console. Right click on Computer Management (Local), choose Properties. Select the Network Identification tab, enter the comment.
2) Command line: net config server /srvcomment:"Whatever"
3) Add and set srvcomment (Reg_sz) to HKLM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters then relog.
4) Use the NT4 Server Manager (part of the SrvTools package).
SrvTools = The Windows NT4 versions of User Manager and Server Manager are included with Windows 2000 server and can be added to Professional as well.

Also see Adminpak  Compmgmt.msc
SSH = SSH Secure Shell can be used to log into another PC over a network and execute commands or move files. It is intended as a complete replacement for ftp, telnet, rlogin, rsh, and rcp.
StartMenu = Use Cascading 'My Computer' in the Start Menu. Drag the My Computer icon to the Start button, and it will automatically create a cascading shortcut to My Computer that will expand to reveal your drives, folders, and files. Hold your cursor over a partition to view its free space and capacity. You can execute a file by clicking on it, or open a folder by double clicking.
StartMenuScroll = When there are more items in the Start Menu than can be displayed in a single column, Windows can either create a second column of items or it can use a scrolling menu. If you would rather display multiple columns than scrolling, set StartMenuScrollPrograms (REG_SZ) to NO under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced.
StartupProcess = Understanding each step in the startup process is important for troubleshooting problems that can occur while starting up or that can prevent the computer from starting at all. Windows 2000 also provides tools that you can use to identify and repair startup problems when they occur.
StartupSettings = System and Startup Settings. Once Windows 2000 starts, there are a number of settings you can modify in the Registry to control how the core operating system works, as well as to customize the startup process.

Also see MSConfig  StartupProcess
StaticMap = If your Network Neighborhood does not consistently contain all the computers on your network, you can statically map them.
StopMessages = Windows 2000 Stop Messages.

Also see BlueSave
Striping = A striped volume (RAID 0) combines areas of free space from multiple hard disks (anywhere between 2 and 32) into one logical volume.
SubnetCalc = IP Subnet Calculation and Design.

Also see TCP/IP
SUBST = The SUBST command associates a path with a drive letter, type SUBST /? for details. The SUBST command will not work correctly for a UNC path, use the NET USE command instead.
SupportTools = Both the Windows Professional and Server CDs include \support\tools\ which contains around 50 utilities, some of which are also included in the publicly available NT4 Resource Kit support tools package. The included W2rksupp.chm file explains how the individual tools work. SP4 Updates are available or you can download the entire package.
XP Support Tools -
SvcHost = Description of Svchost.exe.
SwitchHardDrives = To move your existing Windows2000 installation to another hard drive:

Install a parallel copy of Windows (If the boot drive isn't NTFS, 98 will work) or move the hard drive to another PC.
Boot to the parallel install.
Copy the entire drive to the new drive (xcopy c:\*.* d:\*.* /r/i/c/h/k/e).
Move the hardware, do a repair install to initialize the boot sector.

Also see Cloning  Move2000  RepairBootSector
Sync = Sync.exe can be used to direct the operating system to flush all file system data to disk in order to insure any modified data present in the cache won't be lost.
SysKey = Windows 2000 implements SYSKEY in Mode 1 by default, which performs additional encryption against password hashes stored in the SAM using a 128-bit key. During startup: Mode 1 transparently exposes the system key. Mode 2 requires a password to unlock the system key. Mode 3 stores the system key on a floppy disk, which must be used to boot.
SysPrep = The System Preparation tool (Sysprep) for Windows 2000 prepares a working Windows 2000 installation to be cloned using third-party disk-duplication software to create and apply the images. Best Practices include avoid resizing partitions with imaging software; make the actual image as small as possible and only use sysprep.inf to increase the partition (allows NTFS metafile info to be updated).
SP4 update:

Also see Deploy  SID2
SysReqPro = Minimum system requirements for running Windows 2000 Professional.

Also see SysReqServer
SysReqServer = Minimum system requirements for running Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Advanced Server.

Also see SysReqPro
System32Folder = If the System32 folder opens when you logon, one of your startup links may be invalid.
TaskManager = Task Manager provides information about programs and processes running on your computer. It also displays the most commonly used performance measures for processes. Start it by pressing ctrl + shift + esc or ctrl + alt + del or by right clicking on the taskbar. Select 'Hide When Minimized' under options to send it to the system tray only.
TCP/IP = TCP/IP Info and Troubleshooting.

Also see SubnetCalc
TechNet = Microsoft's TechNet web site contains more than 35,000 files designed to help you find all of the content available by product or subject area quickly and easily.
Telnet = The Windows 2000 Telnet Client is now a command-line application. To use a GUI-based Telnet client, copy Telnet.exe file from a Windows NT4 PC and rename it to Telnet32.exe on the Windows 2000 PC.
TerminalServices = Technical info about Windows 2000 Terminal Services, including service architecture, client licensing, remote administration, and optimizing applications.

Also see TSAC  TSRemote
TheCleaner = The Cleaner is a program designed to detect and remove Trojan Horse viruses. Its features include a fast scan engine, frequent updates, and low resource utilization with the active memory scanner.
TIF = When you attempt to open a .tif file using a "patched" version of IE 5.5, you are prompted to save the file to disk. To allow you to choose to open a .tif file directly, set the Default for both .tif and .tiff under HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT equal to @="Imaging.Document". Under HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Imaging.Document: 1) to automatically open the file, set "EditFlags"=dword:00010000 and 2) to open the file with the imaging program instead of IE, set "BrowserFlags"=dword:00000001
TimeStamp = File and folder date and time stamps (created or modified) are displayed based on the file system that is in use, and the partition(s) involved. Touch.exe, a POSIX utility, can change the access, creation, or last modification time of a file.
TimeSynch = Time Synchronization in Windows 2000.
TimeThis = TimeThis is a command-line resource kit tool that times how long it takes the system to run a command. It can be used interactively and to time commands in .bat and .cmd files. Prefix one or more of the commands you want to time with the TimeThis command.
Tips = Windows 2000 tips.
TList = The Task List Viewer support tool (TList.exe or Tasklist.exe in XP) displays a list of tasks, or processes, currently running on the local computer. For each process it shows the process ID number, process name, and if the process has a window, the title of that window.
TqcRunAs = TqcRunAs is a command line tool that allows you to run a program as another user. Unlike the built-in RunAs command, TqcRunAs can specify a password for the account you are using. It can also make an encrypted file so that the password can't be viewed in plain text. Use the /env switch to run in the environment of the logged on user instead of the user specified at the command line - Note: this will allow %username% to work, but not KiXtart's @userid.
TraceDmp = TraceDmp is a command-line resource kit tool that produces a summary of event trace-log data. It takes TraceLog output and parses it into readable form. TraceDmp can also poll real-time trace-buffer data and convert it to a .csv file.
TraceEnable = The TraceEnable resource kit tool 1) enables / disables RAS/RADIUS tracing through a GUI rather than REGEDT32 and 2) scans the values under the HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Tracing key, and enables you to modify the following subkeys for each component: EnableConsoleTracing, EnableFileTracing, and MaxFileSize.
TraceLog = TraceLog is a command-line resource kit tool that starts, stops, or enables trace logging. The results of event logging can be viewed with either the TraceDmp or Reducer tools. TraceLog acts like a Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) controller link in that it helps control the various parameters associated with the logging of event traces.
TraceRt = The TRACERT (Trace Route) command is a route-tracing utility used to determine the path that an IP packet has taken to reach a destination.

Also see PathPing
TroubleShooting = If a problem occurs with Windows 2000, there are many general troubleshooting methods and tools to help isolate and fix a wide range of problems.

Also see BackUp  BootDisks  DataRecovery  DSG  ErrorCodes  Events  KB  RecoveryConsole  RepairBootSector  SafeMode  StartupProcess  StopMessages
Trusts = How to establish a trust relationship between a Microsoft Windows NT 4.0-based domain and a Windows 2000-based domain.
TSAC = The Terminal Services Advanced Client (TSAC) is a Win32-based ActiveX control (COM object) that can be used to run Terminal Services sessions within Internet Explorer.

Also see TerminalServices
TSCpt = The Terminal Server Capacity Planning resource kit tool allow organizations to place and manage simulated loads on a server. The tools include a server-client load simulator for Windows 2000 Terminal Services, two related test tools, and instructions.
TSRemote = Terminal Services in remote administration mode requires no additional disk space and has a minimal performance impact. Two concurrent administrator connections can be made with a server without installing a license on the client. Client install disks are under %windir%\System32\Clients\Tsclient\Net\Win32 on the server. - Client for all Windows platforms to connect to XP remote desktop (RDP 5.1), but backwards compatible for Windows 2000 Terminal Services (RDP 5.0) clients.

Also see RemoteControl  TerminalServices
Tweakui = Tweak UI version 1.33 supports all versions of Windows up to 2000 (works in XP as well, but the PowerToys version for XP has different features).

Also see
UDMA = Enabling UDMA66 Mode on Intel Chipsets.
UMDHTools = The user-mode dump heap (UMDH) utility works with the operating system to analyze Windows heap allocations for a specific process and to help locate memory leak problems. This utility and the other tools associated with it are targeted for Windows 2000, although you may be able to use it with Windows NT4 Service Pack 5.0 (SP5) or later.
Unattended = Information about creating unattended install packages.

Also see Deploy
Undelete = Undelete products for Windows 2000 / NT.
Uninstall = Manually Remove Windows 2000. Boot to a floppy using the OS of your choice, delete the following hidden/system files if they exist: Boot.ini, Ntbootdd.sys,, NTLDR, Hiberfil.sys, Pagefile.sys. From a:, Type: sys c:

Also see NoUninstall
UninstallKey = Manually remove entries that show up in 'Add/Remove Programs' by deleting their entry in the registry under HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall. TweakUI also has a feature that will do this.

Also see AddRemove
UpdateMode = A number of web sites recommend setting HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Update\UpdateMode to 0 so that your system will "perform faster automatic updates" - UpdateMode is used to control where the system policy is loaded from. The default of 1 points to the PDC's Netlogon share, 2 allows you to point to a location specified under the NetworkPath value, but 0 nullifies the user portion (HKCU settings) of the system policy altogether.
Upgrade = Client Upgrade to Windows 2000.

Also see Analyzer  Install  NoUninstall  Uninstall  UpGrade9X  UpgradeBeta  UpgradeServer
Upgrade9X = Upgrading Windows 9x to Windows 2000 Professional.

Also see Upgrade
UpgradeBeta = Download this utility if you have installed the Windows 2000 Evaluation Edition and want to upgrade it to full code using the Windows 2000 Upgrade CD.

Also see Upgrade
UpgradeServer = Migrating / Upgrading from Windows NT4 Server to Windows 2000 Server.

Also see Upgrade
UpTime = Uptime is a simple command-line tool that analyzes a single server for reliability and availability information. It can work locally or remotely.
UpToMP = Upgrading to Dual Processors in NT4 without using the reskit util, UPTOMP.
1) Make an ERD, do a complete backup, shutdown and add the 2nd CPU
2) Install a parallel copy of NT and apply the same service pack that is in use on your original installation
3) From the new %Windir%\Repair\setup.log, copy the complete lines for ntoskrnl.exe, hal.dll, ntdll.dll, kernel32.dll, and win32k.sys and save them to a text file
Example: \WINNT\system32\ntoskrnl.exe = "ntkrnlmp.exe","e76ab"
4) Boot to the original install, backup setup.log, and replace the 5 values. The checksum values may have changed and both ntoskrnl.exe and hal.dll will point to different files
5) Reapply the service pack and reboot.

For more information, see an archived help article. Do not rely on the checksup values here, use the ones from your parallel installation's setup.log.
For Dual Processors in Windows 2000, see DualCPUs
USB = USB is fully supported in Windows 2000, but updated USB 2.0 driver components are available in Service Pack 4.

Also see for USB support in Windows NT4.
UserManagement = Windows 2000 User Management.

Also see Profiles
UserShellFolders = You can change the location of My Documents and other common folders by modifying the registry under HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\User Shell Folders.
USMT = The User State Migration resource kit tool collects a user's documents and settings (state) before an operating system migration to Windows 2000 is performed and restores them after the installation.
UsrtoGrp = The Usrtogrp.exe resource kit tool is used to add users to local or global groups from a text file. If the group does not exist, it will be created. If a specified user does not exist locally, domain accounts will be used. Remember to keep the length of global group names to <= 20 characters. See the URL for how to emulate this with the net group command.
Utils = Windows 2000 3rd party utilities.
VADump = Vadump.exe, Virtual Address Dump, is a command-line resource kit tool that shows the state and size of each segment of virtual address space. You can use VADump to make sure virtual address space is not over-allocated.
VDMSound = VDMSound provides sound support to DOS boxes under Windows 2000, NT and XP. As of version 2.0.4 (August 04, 2001), VDMSound emulates an MPU-401 interface (for outputting high-quality MIDI music), a SoundBlaster compatible (SB16, SBPro 2, SB2, SBPro, etc.) implementation (for digital sound effects and FM/AdLib music), as well as a standard game-port interface (for playing games with joystick support).
VideoDebug = You may be able to determine the chipset of your Video card with the debug command. Start debug and type d c000:0090
VirusInfo = Virus information sites. Read about the latest viruses, how they work, and how to remove them. - If you get a message saying you will have to purchase a license, download a newer free version

Also see Advisories
VMWare = VMware Workstation 2.0, with versions for Linux and for Windows 2000 and NT4, lets you run one or more Virtual Machines (VMs) on any Win2K, NT, or Linux desktop. VMware Workstation provides hardware emulation that lets you run Windows programs on a Linux machine or vice versa.
VNC = VNC allows you to remotely control a PC. You can remotely copy and initialize VNC using PsExec, allowing you to remotely control a PC without having physically accessed it.

Also see RemoteControl
VPN = Virtual Private Networking Overview.

Also see RRAS
W3Who = W3who.dll, the Browser Client Context resource kit tool helps developers debug Web programming. W3Who is an ISAPI DLL application that works within a Web page to display information about the calling context of the client browser and the configuration of the host server. It is useful when you are testing security and environment contexts.
WaitToKillService = By default, Windows 2000 and NT4 wait 20 seconds to stop a service before forcing it to halt. To increase the time the system allows, edit WaitToKillServiceTimeout under HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Control. The values are in milliseconds, 60000 is 1 minute.
WCAT = The Web Capacity Analysis Tool (WCAT) runs simulated workloads on client-server configurations. Using WCAT, you can test how your Internet Information Services and network configuration respond to a variety of different client requests for content, data, or HTML pages.

Also see IIS5
WFP = Windows 2000 includes a feature called Windows File Protection (WFP) that prevents the replacement of certain monitored system files. The > 200 Meg C:\Winnt\system32\DLLCache directory can be moved; set the new location by adding SFCDllCacheDir (Reg_Expand_SZ, use regedt32) to HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon.

Also see SFC
WhitePapers = Technologies in depth, these pages provide links to technical information about the architecture, capabilities, deployment planning and procedures, and management of each of the major Windows 2000 operating system services.

Also see HowTo
WhoAmI = This command-line resource kit tool returns the domain or computer name and the user name of the user currently logged onto the computer on which the tool runs.
WinDiff = Windiff.exe is a graphical Win32 support tool utility used to compare entire subdirectory trees. It can also be used for doing detailed comparison between two ASCII files, such as source code. It graphically illustrates with colors the difference between the two ASCII files.
WindowsME = Information about Windows Millennium.

Also see DualBootME
WindowsUpdateError = If you run Windows update on a Windows 2000 PC that was installed from a >= SP3 slipstreamed distribution source, you will probably receive an error similar to "Software Update Incomplete, This Windows Update Software Did Not Update Successfully" and a specific error of 0x800A138F. The simplest fix may be to close IE and delete the iuctl.dll and iuengine.dll ActiveX control files in the system32 directory. I have found this to be true in both Pro and Server. The error may also occur on some PCs where >=SP3 was simply applied.

Also see AutomaticUpdates
WindowsXP = Information about Windows XP.

Also see XPActivation
WinInstall = WinInstall is used to create software msi deployment packages. The lite version, WinInstall LE, is included on the Windows 2000 CD (\Valueadd\3rdparty\Mgmt\Winstle), but a newer version is available for download.

Also see MSI
WinIPCfg = The WntIPCfg resource kit tool is a GUI version of IPConfig. It is almost identical to WinIPCfg from Windows 9X. Copy it to the system32 directory and rename it winipcfg.exe
WinMail.dat = When Outlook sends an Email composed in RTF (Rich Text Format), it encodes the message with TNEF causing non-Outlook clients to receive Winmail.dat as an attachment. An Outlook sender can change the Mail Format from Rich Text or can assign each user in their address book to receive a specific format. There are also several options for non-Outlook clients.
Winmsd = Winmsd in Windows 2000 will actually run C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\MSInfo\Msinfo32.exe. Since Winmsd is in the path, it will be easier to use from the command line than msinfo32 itself.
WINS = Windows 2000 Server Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) Overview.
WinSet = Winset.exe, from the Windows 9x CD-ROM, can be used to create environmental variables for Windows 9X clients by setting equivalent variables to ones that are available to your login script, such as SHELL "winset.exe USERNAME=@USERID" for KiXtart. Putinenv.exe can also be used to make additional variables available during login that Winset can then use to create Windows 9x variables.

Also see Scripts
WinSockFix = If you can't get ipconfig /release and /renew to clear an existing IP address (especially after removing spy-ware), WinSockFix can reinitialize Windows' default network settings. This works for Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP.

Also see Ad-Aware
WinSta = Winsta.exe, the WinStation Monitor resource kit tool, monitors the status of all users logged on to a Windows 2000 Terminal Server. It conserves resources while providing up-to-the-minute statistics, including the user name, domain, IP address, session ID, and connection status of currently logged-on users.
WireLess = Wireless LAN info. Make sure you understand the security holes in 802.11 before you invest in Wireless equipment.
WMPDVD = If your computer has the hardware-based support for playing DVDs, you can edit the registry and enable Windows Media Player (WMP) to play DVDs.
WSRemote = The WSRemote.exe support tool provides the ability to start a console application on the server and connect to it from the client using sockets or named pipes. This is an enhancement over Remote Command Line (Remote.exe), which allows only named-pipes connections. WSRemote requires a user name and password before accepting a connection from a sockets client.

Also see PsExec
XCACLS = With CACLS you can grant or replace Read, Change and Full Control NTFS permissions from the command-line. With XCACLS you can grant or replace any NTFS permission from the command-line. XCACLS also includes a /y switch to disable confirmation.

Also see Permissions  ResKit
XCOPY = Run XCOPY /? | more from a command prompt to see the syntax and a list of switches for XCOPY. New features include /exclude (uses a text file to specify files / directories not to copy, /o (copies file ownership and ACL information, same as scopy from the NT4 reskit), /x (copies file audit settings (implies /o)), and /y (suppresses prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an existing destination file).

Also see
XPActivation = Backup and Restore XP activation info. Save the %systemroot%\system32\wpa.dbl file from your current configuration and restore it after you reinstall (boot to safe mode to restore). This procedure isn't a hack to avoid activating installations and will only work on the same hardware for an XP installation that you've already activated.
ZapDisk = ZAPDISK will write zeroes to the first few tracks of the hard drive. It will get rid of any information and any file system (Drive Overlay, FAT32, HPFS, *nix, NTFS, etc...) on the entire hard drive and is useful if you suspect boot sector viruses. Run it from a boot floppy. Note: Zapdisk will only recognize the first 2 hard drives.
Zap.exe is a similar, but updated utility (requires confirmation, supports more than 2 drives) - Main Site or Local Copy

Also see BootDisks  DelPart
May 23, 2007: Repaired links.
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